Exercise Physiology Final; Mississippi State

What is the function of the Pulmonary system?
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Terms in this set (104)
What is the respiratory zone?site of gas exchange Microscopic structures-respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoliWhat are the smallest bronchioles?terminal branchesRespiratory bronchiolesbranches of the terminal bronchioles that subdivide into several alveolar ductsalveolar ductsSmall passages connecting the respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar sacs.What is the function of Alveoli?Provide tremendous surface area for gas exchange.What 3 things must happen to air by the time it reaches the lungs?body temperature must be at 37 celsius, 100% relative humidity, & the release of all particlesHow many Alveoli are there?600 millionWhat is the surface area of alveoli?85m2Visceral Pleuracovers the lungsParietal Pleurachest wall; pecky parietalFunction of Parietal Pleura?lines the thoracic cavityfunction of visceral pleurapleura that invests the lungs and provides a slippery surface that enables the lungs to move freely against the parietal pleura. It covers all surfaces of the lungs including the horizontal and oblique fissures.What is the serous fluid function?1. Eliminates Friction 2. is the indirect connectorWhat does Breathing depend on?volume changes of the thoracic cavityWhat happens when you inhale?volume goes up; pressure goes downWhat happens when you exhale?volume goes down; pressure goes downleft linelungsmiddlerestrightexerciseWhat is the breathing frequency at rest?12 breaths minWhat is the breathing frequency during exercise?up to 70 breaths per minWhat is the function of Pulmonary Diffusion?create surface tension; is a thin layer of fluid on alveolar surfacebreathing mechanics of inspirationdiaphragm descends, ribs are raised, volume increases, intrapulmonic pressure decreases, air rushes in (chest cavity size increases)breathing mechanics of expiration- passive process: *natural recoil of lung tissue*, *relaxation of inspiratory muscles* - diaphragm relaxes, ribs lower, volume decreases, intrapulmonic PRESSURE INCREASES, air rushes out (chest cavity size decreasesHydrostatic Pressurethe pressure within a blood vessel that tends to push water out of the vessel (15mmhg)Colloid osmotic pressurepressure caused by protiens in blood that creates a force that pulls fluid from interstitum into cappillary(25 mmhg)What happens if the Hydrostatic Pressure is higher than the COP?it will damper diffusionWhat muscles are used for inspiration at rest?diaphragm and external intercostalsWhat muscles are used are used for inspiration during exercise?sternocliedomastid, scalenes, rectorals, serratus, trapsBreathing at expire during exercise?Lattimus dorsi, quadratus lundoraum, abdominalsWhat is the importance of surfactant?Decreases work of breathing increases compliance stabilizes alveoli prevents pulmonary edemaWhat is the goal of diffusion?to reach equilibriumWhat are the laws of diffusion?1. diffusion aSa 2. diffusion a1/ thickness of alveolar membrane 3. diffusion is dependent on a partial pressure gradientWhat is daltons law?The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure that each gas would exert independentlyWhat is air consisted of?oxygen, nitrogen, co2, h20What is the barometric pressure at sea level?760 mmHgo220.93co20.003N279.04%h200Why are partial pressures in body different from what's being calculated?Alveolar partial pressures are somewhat different because air entering our lungs mixes w/ residual lung volumes. (rlv)inspiratory reserve volumeAmount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalationtidal volumenormal breatheExpiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalationLung volumestidal, residual, forced vital capacity (FVC); spirometryForced Vital Capacity (FVC)The volume of air expired during a forced maximal expiration after a forced maximal inspiration.spirometerymeasurement of lung capacityWhat is the pa02 at sea level?100What is the Pv02 at sea level?40Pa02 normal range80-100 mmHgpao2partial pressure of oxygenpv02partial pressure of oxygen in venous bloodo2 transport in blood98% bound to hemoglobin 2% dissolved in plasmaco2 transport in bloodDissolved in plasma (10%) Bound to Hb (20%) Bicarbonate (70%)What factors influence curve during exercise?ph, temp, co2 concentrationThe Bohr effect describeseffect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen; decreased phWhen temp, and co2 concentration increase they curve which way?rightWhen pH increases, which way does it curve?leftQ5 ml/minWhat is the purpose of myoglobin?shuttles 02 from cell membrane to mitochondriaMyoglobinhas a higher affinity for o2 than hb; discharges o2 at very low po2; allows mb to store o2What happens to PVo2 when you get toward maximum level of exercise?it dropsWhat is the strongest binding stimulus?Pc02Haldane effect in lungs- the partial pressure gradient causes carbon dioxide to diffuse from the blood into alveolar air, which causes carbon dioxide to release from hemoglobin - the partial pressure gradient causes oxygen to diffuse from the alveolar air into the blood and oxygen attaches to hemoglobinWhere is the respiratory regulation located?brain stemRespiratory regulationcentral chemoreceptors; peripheral chemoreceptors; carotid bodies; Hering bruer reflex; conscious control; proprioceptors; local hypoxia; ANS; Tb;central chemoreceptorsin medulla monitor pH of CSFperipheral chemoreceptorsReceptors in the carotid arteries and the aorta that monitor blood pH to help regulate ventilation rate.The carotid bodies are chemoreceptors that are sensitive to changes in arterialyesHering-Breuer reflexan involuntary impulse triggered by stretch receptors in the bronchioles and alveoli that halts inspiration and initiates exhalationconscious controlresides in higher brain centers; ability to modify breathProprioceptersSensory receptors found in muscle and tendons that detect their degree of stretchlocal hypoxiaif an area of body experiences hypoxia, CNS increases respirationANSautonomic nervous systemTbincrease in cellular respirationWhat happens to pulmonary ventilation during exercise?In the beginning, there is an immediate rise in ventilation due to movement followed by gradual rises due to changes in temp, chemical concentrations Post exercise- breathing takes a few minutes to return to normalApproximately how much surface area (SA) is provided by the lungs for diffusion?85m2Which of the following causes the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to shift right as occurs during exercise?decreased Ph, increased temp, increased co2 concentrationDuring cooperative binding, as one oxygen oxygen molecule binds to hemoglobin?each subsequent oxygen molecule binds more easilyWhat percentage of dry air is Co2?0.0003%Which of the following is partially responsible for expiration during exercise?Release of diaphragm, contraction of abs, contraction of internal intercostalsPulmonary ventilation and pulmonary diffusion...comprise external respirationWhich of the following basically forms a cap on the larynx and is responsible for proper routing of food and air?epiglottisThis part of the pulmonary anatomy is also known as the voice box; it serves 2 primary purposes: 1. routing of food 2. speech soundsLarynxThe volume of ventilated air that does not participate in gas exchange is known as the?dead spaceThe maximum volume of air that can be inspired above a normal respiration is called theinspiratory reserve volumeBlood pH7.4blood Ph of 6.8depression of CNS, coma, deathWhat is a performance limiter in sports?H+ productionmuscle pHDeclines more dramatically than blood pH Muscle has lower buffering capacitypH regulation-intracellular and extracellular buffer systems -lungs - control loss of CO2 -kidneys - reabsorb HCO3- and secrete H+chemical buffersbicarbonate, phosphate, and protein; rapid first line defense in pH maintenanceventilation bufferc02 regulation at the lungs; 2x the combined effect of all chemical buffers in the bodyRenal Bufferslowest but most powerful buffering capability; accomplished through complex reactions that regulate HC03 excretion