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Virginia Statue of Religious Liberty

Virginia's legislature passed this landmark statue in 1786
*Most advanced piece of legislation on religious freedom of the era
*Stated that "no man shall be compelled to.... support any religious worship or...ministry...nor shall he suffer on account of his religious opinions.."
*1st amend, roots on religious come from this statue

establishment clause

This clause found in 1st amend
*It prohibited the government from establishing a state religion as there was in England,France, Spain, and Germany at the time(1791)

Everson vs. Board of Education

1947 US Supreme Court decision
*Concerned a New Jersey law that reimbursed parents of parochial school students for their children's bus fare
*court decreed that "neither a state or the federal government..can pass laws which did one religion, or prefer on religion over another".

Zetman vs. Simmons

Harris-2002 US Supreme court decision
*Approved the use of school vouches in Cleveland,Ohio even if a person used government voucher money to send their child to a religious or church supported school
*Court decision determined there was no violation of the establishment clause as school choice as freely made by parents and not the state


word used that stir up rebellion or advocate overthrowing the government


destructive acts that jeopardize nation security
*(Ex. blowing up a plant that produces fighter jets which protect US air space)


spying for the enemy or a country that is a potential adversary


any willful act that aids the enemy and puts your own country at risk
*(most people who commit treason provide critical information to the enemy or potential adversary)


verbal or written attacks on a person's good name or character


defamatory verbal remarks made in public or over the radio


defamatory remarks that appear in print
*(ex. newspapers,magazines,campaign literature,etc.)


Imposed restraint of ideas in speech print, or film before they are expressed
*(often censorship is done by a newspaper or a news magazine editorial board so they will not open themselves up to a libel suit)
*(some censorship is applied in wartime with certain information so the enemy will not gain access to this information)

prior restraint

official government censorship of a work before it is published or released


a court order that forbids a specific activity

"Pentagon Papers"

a classified (secret) defense department study which investigated and evaluated US actions and involvement in vietnam from the late 1940s to 1968

Daniel Ellsbern

Defense Department analyst
*Violated security rules and furnished copies of "Pentagon Papers" to the New York Times and Washington Post


freedom of expression which is not protected by the 1st amendment because it is offensive to the public and lacks meaningful history literary or artistic value

mass media

television networks, radio networks, and large press syndicates (AP,UPI,Knight-Ridder)
*provide "news" information and whose reporting and editorials can influence the country

fairness doctrine

an FCC regulation which required television and radio networks to present both sides of an important issue
*repealed in 1987

sunshine laws

laws that require government agencies to open their meetings to the press and the public

shield laws

laws which established condition where new reporters are not required to testify in state courts
*these laws protect reporters confidential sources who provide reporters with critical information

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