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CRP 336 Exam 2
Terms in this set (44)
the use carbon dioxide as a raw material to produce graphene. Graphene is used to create screens for smart phones and other tech devices. Graphene production is limited to specific industries but is an example of how carbon dioxide can be used as a resource and a solution in reducing emissions from the atmosphere
Direct air capture
a means by which to capture carbon directly from the air using advanced technology plants. This process is energy intensive and expensive. Too costly to implement on a mass scale. Most expensive form of sequestration
scientists are engineering molecules that can change shape by creating new kinds of compounds capable of singling out and capturing carbon dioxide from the air. These engineered molecules act as a filter, only attracting the element it was engineered to seek
One cause of natural habitat fragmentation
One major problem facing California agricultural areas
A factor that can cause a city shrink
Enforces the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)
Communities in the coastal zone in California must prepare this.
Local Coastal Plan
A consequence of sprawl in natural landscapes
An example of an ecosystem service
Natural or induced linear areas that link patches
The result when land consumption increases faster than population growth.
A characteristic of sprawling development
Leap frog development
What are the three habitat types of typical urban stream?
faster flowing, well oxygenated water
slower flowing, deep water
What are two benefits of maintaining biodiversity?
More diverse ecosystems are generally more productive and resilient. Greater biodiversity increase resistance of ecosystems to drought and resistance of communities to disease.
Why is it a good idea to redevelop a brownfield?
-it recycles unused / underused existing land and property
-reduces future land consumption outside of cities
-eliminates or reduces possible environmental risks
-improved livability of a city
-restoration helps provide ecosystem services
How do you prevent or address environmental justice violations
Fair treatment and meaningful involvement.
Fair treatment - no group should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, governmental and commercial operation or policies
Meaningful involvement -
1. People have an opportunity to participate in decisions about activities that may affect their environment and health
2. Public opinion can influence regulatory agency's decisions
3. Decision makers seek out and facilitate the involvement of those potentially affected
What is the definition of environmental justice?
The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people, regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies.
What is an environmental justice violation?
When there is no fair treatment, no meaningful involvement or policy innovation while addressing a public environmental issue.
Kettleman City example:
City governance and board of supervisors approve an incinerator without the meaningful involvement of its residents. Tried to take advantage of poor, low education areas.
Name three wildlife habitat areas found in urban areas.
- Remnant woodlands & corridors
- Wetlands and riparian areas
- Abandoned industrial and military sites
Name and briefly define three characteristics of sprawl
- Quickly replicated: mass production of houses
- Outpaces infrastructure: homes built before community needs
-Auto-oriented: cars are main source of transportation
What is the definition of sprawl?
When land consumption increases faster than population growth.
How does sprawl affect pre-existing ecosystems?
- Widespread environmental impacts resulting from land conversion activities
-fragmentation of municipal governments
-increases conversion pressure on rural land
-dependence on auto-centered transportation
-Consumes more energy
Identify and define two ways in which the effects of anthropogenic fragmentation can be mitigated or at least minimized
Anthropogenic fragmentation - leads to small and isolated remnant plant and animal populations. Can reduce genetic variation or remnant populations
- Identify and protect the animals and plants that exist now, manage exotic and native species
-Restore degraded habitats
How can human settlement benefit some wildlife?
-More available water
-New nest sites
How are the landscape management approaches of corridors and redundancy related to biodiversity and ecosystem resilience?
More genetic variation
- Allows target species to have a wider range of resources and land to live on. Biodiverse because as you combine patches and land, the species has more resource and a more diverse ecosystem.
Combination of ecosystems brings increase of biodiversity, leading to greater resistance of the ecosystem to severe weather conditions like drought, increasing resilience
Differentiate sprawl and growth
Sprawl: when land consumption increases faster than population growth.
Growth: when land consumption and population grow at a balanced rate
What are the primary challenges to implementation of technological GHG reduction?
Graphene production is limited to specific industries and does not scale yet.
Direct air capture is too costly.
- Combined with cost, these options are not operable at a scale to impact global climate budgets.
How can planners engage environmental justice? At what point in project development or management can/should planners take EJ into account?
1. Do your research
2. Communicate what's at stake and how the communities input will be used
3. Involve community through community involvement, like events
4. integrate educational content
5. leverage community leaders
Planners should take EJ into account at the beginning of the development phase to ensure no unfair treatment occurs to those people/habitats living in that area are negatively affected by things that could be mitigated.
Please list the data you would need to develop a corridor: About the species? About the community and region? About the patches being permitted?
- Identify the habitat areas the corridors is designed to connect
- Select several target species
-Evaluate relevant needs of species
-Evaluate how the area will accommodate movement by each species
You need current information on plants and animals that includes their distribution, life history, habitat requirements and conservation status. It requires non-biological data such as landscape features and infrastructure data such as locations of roads and structures.
Please describe three challenges faced by cities with prolonged or permanent population loss.
-suburbanization due to hollowing out, the weakening of a cities middle class. Segregation of race and class is also an issue.
-industrial transformation, old industrial areas no longer being needed or desirable places to live / work, causing a decline in population in those areas
-selective collapse, caused by environmental and economical disasters. Natural disasters and Dot-com hype causes many to lose jobs in cities
Propose one solution to the three challenges faced by cities with prolonged or permanent population loss are
Shift the paradigm of the city
-don't just focus on growth, focus on shrinking aspect and how to adjust to it properly
-If a city had prior uses (was an industrial hub), then redefine the cities role under the premises of a new economy. Give the city new goals.
-Regional governance: search for solution
What is different after development has altered a stream hydrograph?
There will be much more rapid flows following rain and will quickly return to those conditions when the rain stops. Development also causes an exaggerated effect of moderate rain events, lower baseflow, greater runoff volume, and shorter lag to peak times
Why does development alter stream hydrographs?
because these all cause property loss, sediment load, pollution delivery, flooding, and has negative effects on animals such as steelhead.
What is a brownfield?
A brownfield is a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.
Define two ways that can be used to mitigate the impact development has on altering streams
Ways to mitigate
bank armoring -beefing up and straightening stream flows to ensure better flow of water
Low impact development
-Seeks to copy the natural hydrologic character of the site which in turn promotes increased filtration
-conserves natural resources and promotes direct runoff to natural and landscaped areas
List/describe how development alters streams.
-impervious surfaces can prevent rainfall from infiltrating soil and groundwater, leading to increased runoff to streams.
-Rainfill moves to streams quicker and in greater amounts, causing peak flows to be higher, leading to flooding more frequently in urban areas/
-increased runoff leads to changes in water quality
-increased flashiness and higher and lower peak flows in streams are also an effect
How does development alter stream hydrographs?
Development alters stream hydrographs in many different ways. Development causes the hydrograph to be flashy, meaning there are shorter and higher peak flows.
What are some of the challenges when planning new infrastructure in a developing country?
The amount of financing when it comes to planning new infrastructure, especially when trying to reduce GHG emissions and for adaptation, is very large. Public finance, especially in developing countries, is insufficient to meet this need and to provide funding for capital investment projects. Ensuring a site is resilient and the community is as well can be hard in developing countries.
Please provide an example of natural and anthropogenic fragmentation
Anthropogenic Frag - Timber harvest, conversion of habitat to agriculture, urbanization or other development
Natural Frag - Floods, fires and glaciers
What are the three technological GHG reductions
Direct Air Capture
Why are brownfields a problem for cities (and planners who work for them)?
Brownfields are a problem for cities and planners because of the liability that comes with them
-some sites have health risks that CERCLA (comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act) and the city don't feel are worth fixing and are worried about liability to new development
-all owners of site can be sued for full amount in damages due
-recognized as a significant obstacle for revitalizing cities
-issue for planners
-costs lots of government funding and time to redevelop
Name three ecosystem services
- Maintenance of Biodiversity
-Purification of air and water
Why is the maintenance of biodiversity important?
More diverse ecosystems are generally more productive
Greater biodiversity increases
-resistance of ecosystems to drought
-resistance of communities to disease
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