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Chapter 12-16 General Psychology
Terms in this set (50)
Reduced feelings of tension following aggressive outbursts contribute to
the reinforcement of aggression.
According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.
cognitive appraisal; physical arousal
The study of positive emotions, desirable character traits, and enabling institutions is central to the subfield known as
In response to stress, the adrenal glands release
When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often experience the discomfort of
Mindfulness meditation has been found to reduce
anxiety and depression.
Aerobic exercise has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT
increased risk for obesity.
The James-Lange theory of emotion states that
to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.
Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.
Which basic emotion is facially expressed by nose wrinkled, upper lip raised, and tongue pushed outward?
The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as
A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage
The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the
emergency is being observed by a number of other people.
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if we have previously complied with a small request.
The set of people perceived as different from "us" is called a(n)
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
Attributing the cause of behavior is
how people explain others' behavior.
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
During a protest, a crowded concert, or an anonymous social media group, people may lose self-awareness and self-restraint. This is known as
Students were observed to pull harder in a tug-of-war when they knew they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling behind them. This best illustrates
Carl Rogers' ________ perspective held that people are primed to reach their potential and are basically good.
Psychodynamic theories emphasize that personality involves a dynamic interaction between
conscious and unconscious mental processes.
The MMPI, which was originally developed to identify emotional disorders, is also currently used to
assess personality traits.
Personality inventories are designed to assess several ________ at once.
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
Freud suggested that defense mechanisms protect an individual from
According to Rogers, when a person offers unconditional positive regard, they are demonstrating
Trait theories built upon
both psychoanalytic and humanistic theories.
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
Jerome cannot remember events from the day his mother died. In terms of Freud's theory of personality, Jerome's memories are stored at the ________ level of awareness.
Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
Positive psychological changes that result from struggling with extremely challenging life crises demonstrate
A token economy represents an application of the principles of
Dialectical behavior therapy is a form of
Clients often benefit from psychotherapy because it provides them with an explanation for their symptoms and frees them from false beliefs. This best illustrates the therapeutic value of
a new perspective.
People are less likely to need psychotherapy if they experience
Insight therapies aim to improve psychological functioning by
increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
Person-centered therapy is also referred to as
Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
Training people to actively challenge their own self-defeating ideas best illustrates
An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
a specific phobia.
A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in a person's thoughts, emotion regulation, or behaviors is most clearly an indication of
a psychological disorder.
Depression is likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this disorder from a ________ perspective.
Evidence that many DID patients have suffered abuse as children leads some psychologists to include dissociative disorders under the umbrella of
posttraumatic stress disorder.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a neurodevelopmental disorder?
beginning in early adulthood
Anxiety disorders may be characterized by
a.) persistent anxiety.
b.) distressing anxiety.
c.) all of these symptoms.
d.) maladaptive behaviors.
all of these symptoms.
The American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual is used for several purposes, including
a.) determining who is eligible for treatment.
b.) all of these purposes.
c.) describing disorders.
d.) estimating how often a disorder occurs.
all of these purposes.
Epigenetics is defined as the
study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change.
Loss of energy and physical agitation most of the time over a 2-week period is most likely associated with
major depressive disorder.
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured.
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