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17 terms

Biology 196 Week 2 Lab

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Compound Microscope
multiple objective lenses on a turret, one ocular lens
Dissecting Microscope
each eyepiece has it's own ocular lens, gives 3D perspective, used for viewing larger specimens (also called stereoscopic microscope)
total magnification
the magnification of the ocular lens time the magnification of the objective lens
(example: ocular lens is 10x, objective lens is 40x, total magnification is 400x)
Resolving Power
A measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points
R= landa/2NA
landa=wavelength of light, NA is numerical aperature
the larger the NA, the lower the resolving power
Eukaryotic Cells
-Found in plants, animals, fungi, protists
-Has membrane bound organelles
-Has DNA containing nucleus
-Has chromosomes that carry linear DNA
-Are fairly LARGE
Prokaryotic Cells
-Bacteria
-No membrane bound organelles
-Does not contain nucleus, DNA is found throughout cell
-Plasmid: circular DNA
-fairly small
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from areas of higher chemical potential (higher concentration) to areas of lower chemical potential (lower concentration).
Chemical Potential
The free energy available to do work of moving molecules from one location to another, in some cases through a barrier such as a cell membrane.
Osmosis
The movement of water molecules from regions of higher water potential to regions of lower water potential across a semi permeable or selectively permeable membrane, i.e. diffusion of water
Passive Transport
Molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration; molecules move in the same direction as the concentration gradient.
Active Transport
Molecules move from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration; molecules move against the concentration gradient.
Selectively Permeable Membrane
Only certain molecules can pass through the membrane. Selected by size, polarity, charge, electrophobicity, etc.
Semipermeable Membrane
A membrane (like a cell membrane) that allows some molecules to pass through, but not others.
Dialysis
A separation of substances in solution by means of their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes.
Hypotonic Solution
A solution with a comparatively lower concentration of solutes compared to another.
Isotonic Solution
A solution with equal concentration of solutes compared to another.
Hypertonic Solution
A solution with a comparatively higher concentration of solutes compared to another.