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The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian


Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations, images, and feelings is called


The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of


Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?


Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

nature vs. nurture

Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?

Charles Darwin

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates


The key attitudes of scientific inquiry are

curiosity, skepticism, and humility

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates

critical thinking

The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their


The study of psychology is potentially dangerous because

psychological knowledge can be used for destructive purposes

Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a


A hypothesis is a

testable prediction that gives direction to research

Professor Delano suggests that people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful that average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of

a hypothesis

The case study is a research method in which

a single individual is studied in great depth

In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?

the survey

Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy". These somewhat paradoxical survey results illustrate the importance of

wording effects

Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of re-election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of

naturalistic observation

Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of

specific brain regions

Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?

biological psychology

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a

myelin sheath

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

action potential

A synapse is a

junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called


Reuptake refers to the

reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron

Jose has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of


Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into

the bloodstream

Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a


The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the


Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the motor cortex?


By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a robotic arm. This best illustrates

neural prosthetics

The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of


The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as


By restraining the use of his left hand, doctors helped Bruce to use and improve the coordination skills of his right hand. The doctors employed a technique known as

constraint-induced therapy

The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in

children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed

Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of

circadian rhythms

Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of

selective attention

While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates

selective attention

Circadian rhythm refers to

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle

After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal

circadian rhythm

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with

REM sleep

A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as


Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably

would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep

Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?

Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime

During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from


Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through

REM sleep

Hypnosis involves a state of

heightened openness to suggestion

People can be hypnotically induced to

report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath

The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that

hypnotized people can endure pain without experiencing emotional distress

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