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50 terms

Modules 1-9 Exam

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The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian
physician
Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations, images, and feelings is called
introspection
The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of
behaviorism
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
James
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
nature vs. nurture
Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?
Charles Darwin
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome
Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates
overconfidence
The key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
curiosity, skepticism, and humility
A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates
critical thinking
The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their
culture
The study of psychology is potentially dangerous because
psychological knowledge can be used for destructive purposes
Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a
theory
A hypothesis is a
testable prediction that gives direction to research
Professor Delano suggests that people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful that average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of
a hypothesis
The case study is a research method in which
a single individual is studied in great depth
In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
the survey
Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy". These somewhat paradoxical survey results illustrate the importance of
wording effects
Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of re-election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of
naturalistic observation
Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of
specific brain regions
Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
biological psychology
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a
myelin sheath
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
action potential
A synapse is a
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
neurotransmitters
Reuptake refers to the
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
Jose has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
endorphins
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
the bloodstream
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a
lesion
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
cerebellum
Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the motor cortex?
face
By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a robotic arm. This best illustrates
neural prosthetics
The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
touch
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as
plasticity
By restraining the use of his left hand, doctors helped Bruce to use and improve the coordination skills of his right hand. The doctors employed a technique known as
constraint-induced therapy
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of
circadian rhythms
Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of
selective attention
While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates
selective attention
Circadian rhythm refers to
a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle
After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal
circadian rhythm
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
REM sleep
A periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as
sleep
Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep
Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?
Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from
narcolepsy
Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through
REM sleep
Hypnosis involves a state of
heightened openness to suggestion
People can be hypnotically induced to
report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath
The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that
hypnotized people can endure pain without experiencing emotional distress