When employed mothers remain committed to parenting, children display

a. average self-esteem
b. less gender-stereotyped beliefs
c. increased behavior problems
d. reasonable achievement
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Which statement is true about transgender children?

a. when questioned about their peer preferences, transgender children respond very differently from non-transgender agemates who share their expressed gender
b. transgender children, who are dissatisfied with their natal sex and strongly identify as the other sex, are not pretending, confused, or delayed in gender understanding
c. gender dysphoria typically disappears in early adolescence as young people who were previously dissatisfied with their natal sex encounter first feelings as sexual attraction
d. current evidence suggest that the best approach for gender-dysphoric children is to lessen their cross-gender behavior and increase their comfort with their natal sex
Which statement about preventing childhood injuries is true?

a. once they know better, children do not behave in ways that compromise safety
b. parents should ease off on monitoring preschoolers once they have learned safety rules
c. American parents rarely ignore safety rules
d. many parents overestimate young children's knowledge of safety rules
Paul and Deb are getting a divorce. They are worried about the long-term consequences this will have on their three children. You can tell them that the overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is ____________.

a. the custody arrangement
b. temperament
c. combined household income
d. effective parenting
Which statement about the consequences of obesity is true?
a. obese children and adolescents report fewer school difficulties
b. in most cases, obese children are not at risk for health problems
c. in western societies, obese youngsters are stereotyped as lazy, self-doubting and deceitful
d. persistent obesity has no relationship to serious psychological disorder
Research on environmental influences on gender typing suggests that beginning at birth, parents ____________.

a. actively reinforce dependency in boys
b. have different expectations of sons than of daughters
c. have similar expectations of sons and daughters
d. give their sons toys that emphasize cooperation
As Eric approaches adolescence, his parents gradually give him more control. They exercise general oversight while letting Eric take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. Eric's parents are engaging in _________.

a. authoritarian parenting
b. transitive inference
c. coregulation
d. permissive parenting
Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that exposure to violent screen media ______________. a. decreases the likelihood of hostile emotions but increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior in viewers b. has a negative impact on preschool children but does not increase aggression in older children c. encourages children to believe that perpetrators are almost always punished d. increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and emotions and aggressive behavior in viewersd. increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and emotions and aggressive behavior in viewersWhich statement about research on make-believe play is true? a. in sociodramatic play, children do not understand that make-believe is a representational activity b. children with imaginary companions display less complex and less imaginative make-believe play c. preschoolers who devote more time to sociodramtic play are rated by observers as more socially competent a year later d. children who engage in more make-believe play are less able to reflect on their own thinkingc. preschoolers who devote more time to sociodramtic play are rated by observers as more socially competent a year laterDuring middle childhood, after a friendship forms, _____________ becomes its defining feature. a. proximity b. stability c. similarity d. trustd. trustIn contrast Piaget's approach to cognition, the information-processing perspective ____________. a. examines separate aspects of thinking b. fails to consider biological influences of cognitive development c. applies only to children to cultures that require formal schooling d. focuses on overall cognitive changea. examines separate aspects of thinkingOne strategy of positive parenting is ___________. a. withdrawal of privileges b. reducing opportunities for misbehavior c. allowing children freedom from family routines and duties d. using time-out when children are obstinateb. reducing opportunities for misbehaviorPiaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by ____________, in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features a. class inclusion b. centation c. animistic thinking d. reversibilityb. centationStudies in diverse Western nations confirm that by age 5 or 6, __________ children generally evaluate their own racial group favorably and other racial groups less favorably or negatively a. low SES b. immigrant c. white d. minorityc. whiteChildren who are an expert in an area ______________________. a. are usually highly motivated b. do not find memory strategies useful c. acquire new information at a slow and steady pace d. rarely ask how previously stored information can clarify new materiala. are usually highly motivatedAfter Jenn bit her brother, her father would not let her watch TV. This technique, known as withdrawal of privileges, _____________. a. gives Jenn's father a cooling-off period b. allows Jenn's father to avoid harsh punishment and side effects c. results in a hostile parent-child relationship d. is not as effective as corporal punishmentb. allows Jenn's father to avoid harsh punishment and side effectsAlice selects a puzzle for her son that is slightly too difficult for him to put together alone and adjusts the support she offers to fit his current level of performance. Alice is engaging in ________. a. scaffoling b. dual representation c. proximal teaching d. preoperational learninga. scaffolingWhen Andi's best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to 10. Andi is using ______________. a. problem-centered coping b. emotion-centered coping c. mastery-oriented attributions d. learned helplessnessb. emotion-centered copingConstructivist classrooms ________________________. a. rely on passive students listening and completion of teacher-assigned tasks b. are associated with gains in critical thinking and greater social and moral maturity c. evaluate students by how well they keep pace with a uniform set of standards for their grade d. tend to undermind academic motivation and achievementb. are associated with gains in critical thinking and greater social and moral maturityResearch on friendships show that ________________, a. preschoolers interact in essentially the same ways with both friends and nonfriends b. preschoolers give more reinforcement to nonfriends than to friends c. most friendships during the preschool years are based on mutual trust d. children entering kindergarten who have friends in their class adjust to school more favorablyd. children entering kindergarten who have friends in their class adjust to school more favorablyPreschoolers who spend more time engaged in ____________ play are better at inhibiting, impulses, regulating emotion, and taking responsibility for following rules. a. block b. sociodramtic c. gross-motor d. independentb. sociodramticWhen Lynnie gets an A in her language arts class, she assumes it was due to pure luck. Lynnie appears to ______________. a. be a mastery-oriented child b. have high academic self-esteem c. appreciate that effort matters d. be a learned-helpless childd. be a learned-helpless childU.S. legislation mandates that schools place children who require special supports for learning in ___________________. a. "separate but equal" learning environments b. the "least restrictive" environments that meet their educational needs c. full inclusive "regular" educational settings, alongside typical students d. "resource rooms" with teachers trained in special educationb. the "least restrictive" environments that meet their educational needsEmpathy _______________. a. is more often expressed in toddlerhood than in the preschool years b. leads to feelings of sorrow for another's plight c. motivates prosocial, or altruistic behavior d. invariably produces acts of kindness and helpfulnessc. motivates prosocial, or altruistic behaviorWhen asked, "how many are there?" 5-year-old Drew correctly counts nine gummy bears. He tells his teacher there are nine bears because he knows that the last number in the counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set. Drew has a grasp of _________________. a. chronological order b. addition c. cardinality d. interactive mathematicsc. cardinalityDuring middle childhood, perceived __________________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than does any other self-esteem factor. a. athletic competence b. academic competence c. physical appearance d. social competencec. physical appearanceMary Katherine is taking a test in which she is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a drinking straw. This is most likely a test of ____________________. a. convergent thinking b. divergent thinking c. practical intelligence d. analytical intelligenceb. divergent thinkingAmong preschoolers, ________ contributes to gains in emotional self-regulation. a. permissive child rearing b. authoritarian child rearing c. language d. a larger family sizec. languageIn child-centered preschool and kindergarten programs, _________________. a. teachers structure children's learning b. teachers rely on repetition and drill c. children learn through formal lessons d. much learning takes place through playd. much learning takes place through playEleven-year old Kristi has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erickson's theory, Leah has _________________. a. positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood b. developed on ideal self that guides her behavior c. not yet encountered the psychological conflict of middle childhood d. overcome the challenge of role confusiona. positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhoodWhich experience is Calvin most likely to have in his classroom in Finland? a. an emphasis on native ability as the key to academic success b. teachers who are not as well-paid as U.S. teachers c. socioeconomic variations in achievement due to a recent influx of immigrant students d. a nationally mandated curriculum aimed at cultivating initiative, problem solving, and creativityd. a nationally mandated curriculum aimed at cultivating initiative, problem solving, and creativitySharon attends a preschool program that stresses formal academic training. As a result, Sharon is more likely to ______________ than peers who attend a child-centered program. a. show significant gains in IQ throughout her school years b. display more stress behaviors such as wiggling and rocking c. have better study habits in elementary school d. prefer more challenging tasksb. display more stress behaviors such as wiggling and rockingThe hippocampus plays avital role in ___________________ and _____________ _________________.memory; spatial understandingIn social-constructivist classrooms, students' learning is jointly constructed with ____________ and ________________.teachers; peersWhen asked, "tell me about yourself, "_____________-year-old John is most likely to say "i have new, blue shoes."3________________________ enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversityResilienceThe leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized nations is ___________________ __________________.unintentional injuriesMany ethnic minority parents without extensive schooling prefer a(n) __________ style of communication when completing tasks with children.collaborativeAccording to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is ______________ vs. ____________.initiative; guiltDespite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(an) _________________ style during the early years.authoritativeFour-year-old Donna is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid. When the liquid from one glass is poured into a short, wide container, she says there is more water in the shorter container because it is "all spread out." Donna lacks an understanding of __________________.conservationDuring a conservation-of-liquid tasks, 8-year-old Grace shows she is capable of __________________ when she notes that water poured into a new container has changed in both width and height and that this accounts for the amount of water remaining the same.reversibilityIrene tells her classmates not to play with Marie because "she lies." This is an example of _______________ aggression.relationalIn regard to self-conscious emotions in middle childhood, __________ motivates children to take further challenges, whereas ___________ prompts them to strive for self-improvement.pride; guiltThree-year-old William understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. William has a grasp of ______________.ordinalityKaren passed Piaget's ______________ _____________ problem. This indicates that Karen can relate perceived specific categories to their less-obvious general categories.class inclusionFour children in Leonard's preschool class act out out a make-believe theme during their preschool's dramatic play period. They are engaging in ______________ play.cooperative________________ praise implies that competence develop through effort.processWayne is considering not immunizing his newborn son because he read an article about a possible link between a mercury-based preservative used in vaccines and a rise in autism diagnoses. Wayne should know that large-scale studies show _______ association between the preservative and autism.noChildren from economically advantaged homes are at their healthiest in the ___________ stage of development.middleAccording to social learning theory, moral behavior is acquired through _________________.modelingIn middle childhood, children's self-descriptions start to emphasize ________________.competencies