APWH unit 4

Learning Objective A: Describe how cross cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of tech and facilitated changes in patterns of trade and travel from 1450-1750
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Cross cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of technology and facilitated changes in patterns of trade and travel in the period 1450-1750 by knowledge, scientific learning, & tech diffusing from the Asian and Islamic world which facilitated European technological developments. Cross cultural connections through the trade routes of the Indian Ocean for example contributed heavily to the diffusion of the triangular lateen sail from the Islamic world and helpful compass from the Chinese. This shows how cross cultural connections contributed to the diffusion of technology. The cross-cultural connections helped develop new ships like the Dutch fluyt, Portuguese caravel, and Portuguese carrack, further showing how important these interactions were. A last one would be astronomical charts which were introduced from the Islamic world.
States in 1450-1750 expanded maritime exploration by supporting joint-stock companies and explorers. Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal is a good example of a State sponsoring the expansion of maritime exploration as he funded explorers such as Vasco da Gama. Christopher Columbus, the very reason for the boom of maritime exploration into the New World was himself funded by the Spanish crown. Joint stock companies such as the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company were not run by the state but Britain or the Dutch states gave permission for these to govern their respective areas.
The economic causes of maritime exploration in 1450-1750 by various European states were the riches present, while the effects include the Atlantic Slave trade. Gold and silver, exploited by the Spanish in Latin America and the lucrative sugar plantations, such as the Engenho(meaning engine in Portuguese) that prospered in the new world, were the main money makers in the New World, a huge cause for maritime exploration. The effects were the Atlantic Slave trade because the demand for labor in the sugar plantations were only satisfiable by slaves imported from Africa.
The causes of the Columbian exchange was advanced technology and the desire from European states to fund explorers to find a way to the East indies. Technology such as the lateen sail and caravels helped explorers reach the new world and make the Columbian exchange happen The effects of the columbians exchange was the transfer of smallpox and other diseases into the New World and other things such as coffee, tea, and farm animals like pigs, cattle and horses. This led to some civilizations becoming bison hunters on horseback instead of their prior farming lifestyle. Okra and rice were brought to the Americas, increasing the variety of nutritious crops being planted. The Columbian Exchange brought potatoes, corn, and yams among other things to the 'Old World', increasing populations throughout Afro-Eurasia as the nutritious crops boosted populations of Ireland with potatoes, and Africa with yams and corn.
The process of state building and expansion among various empires and states in the period 1450-1750 include the establishment of trading posts and the emphasis on maritime empires. The expansion of trading post empires like Portugal is an example of the establishment of trading posts, which led to Europe dominating long distance trade. This led to isolationist policies of certain Asian states like the Ming and Tokugawa Japan. The new powers started colonizing various parts of the New World and areas around the Indian Ocean trade network, such as Macau and Calicut. Other states like the Kingdom of Kongo in Africa built their state by jconquering other territories for slaves, something vital to the European sugar plantations like the Engenhos.
rulers used joint-stock companies (required to report to crown) and monopolies to consolidate power, basically taking control of global trade. she could be how different jsc like the dutch east indies basically had their own colonies eventually given to the crown also conflict over economics occurred, such as the Songhai vs Morrocan conflict over trade routes, which caused the collapse of the Songhai empire then European countries divided up their land
Learning Objective K: Explain the similarities and differences in how various belief systems affected societies from 1450-1750belief systems caused religious conflicts such as competition between christiain and muslim merchants in the indian ocean, forced conversions of natives in the americas, and natives fighting against conversion such as the pueblo revoltLearning Objective L: Explain the effects of the development of state power from 1450-1750The attempted expansion of state power led to increased pushback from nonaristocrats and slaves. she: cossack revolts in russia, maroon wars (slave rebellions) in the carribean, and ana nzinga who played the portugese to take control of ndongo and matambaLearning Objective M: Explain how social categories, roles, and practices have been maintained or have changed over timeSocial categories, roles, and practices have been maintained or changed over time with the introduction of new social structures and the nobility staying powerful. Examples of powerful nobles are Ottoman timars, Russian boyars, and the nobility in Europe. They stayed the same as in prior periods the nobility held a lot of power like in feudalism where the nobles owned land and the serfs on there. The Expulsion of Jews from Spain is a change because they were originally ok and accepted there. The introduction of the casta system is also another way the social structure changed but in the New World.