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CRIM 2003 FINAL EXAM REVIEW CONTENT
consists of all three quizzes' questions, and important definitions from the notes look at the feedback on your own quizzes for Dr. Harris' explanations
Terms in this set (44)
Both violent and property crime peaked most recently in __________.
- The year 2020
- The late 1970s
- The early 1950s
- The early-to-mid 1990s
The early-to-mid 1990s
Defining crime as violations of laws and statutes can be problematic because __________.
- Some people have more power to write laws than others
- Laws can change over time
- Statutes can differ across communities or other geographic areas even within the same country
- All of the above
All of the above
When thinking about the age distribution of crime, most types of crime peak during which age range?
-The mid-to-late teens or early twenties
-The late twenties
-The early tween years (e.g., 10-12)
The mid-to-late teens or early twenties
Most of the public doesn't have a good understanding of crime. Which of the following did we discuss as a factor that affects how people perceive the risk of crime occurring in specific places?
-Racial and ethnic composition
-Signs of disorder (e.g., graffiti)
-All of the above
All of the above
T/F?: Between the early 2000s and 2020, most of the general public believed crime had been increasing every year even as nearly all crime had steadily dropped.
Which of the following would be considered a crime according to our legalistic definition?
-Both robbery and speeding
-Burning a flag
-All of these choices are crimes
both robbery and speeding
The single most common type of property crime is __________.
Taking property unlawfully from a person or place by force or threat of force is known as?
Aggravated Assault is?
Attacking a person(s) for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury.
Unlawful entry into a structure to commit a felony or theft is known as?
Taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another.
Altering, copying, or imitating of something, without authority or right, to deceive or defraud is known as?
The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an example of __________ data.
The biggest critique or complaint with official crime data is __________.
-It doesn't capture serious, violent crime
-It's not available for a long period of time (only the past decade)
-It's not available in most places
-It misses crime that is unreported to the police
It misses crime that is unreported to the police
Communities plagued by poverty, mobility, and heterogeneity have weak social institutions and informal social control, which leads to crime in those places.
Social Disorganization Theory
Crime occurs when we emphasize economic success (money) without providing equal access to the legitimate means of achieving it or when emphasize getting it more than doing it the right way.
Merton's Anomie Theory
Crime occurs when an individual (a) loses something they value, (b) experiences something negative, or (c) experiences a disconnect between some goal and the way to achieve it and they don't have a coping mechanism to deal with the situation.
Agnew's General Strain Theory
Crime becomes more likely when someone learns from those around them that crime is sometimes acceptable and they learn how to do it.
Social Learning Theory
People commit crime when they have weak attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief and they act out on their natural self-interest.
Social Bonding Theory
T/F?: According to our guest speaker, Dr. Jeff Gruenewald, domestic far right terrorism is the most common type of domestic terrorism.
According to Shaw and McKay (1942), which area of the city had the highest rate of crime year after year?
-The working class residential zone
-The commuter zone
-The zone in transition
-The central business district
The zone in transition
Legally, an offense that is the result of taking steps to commit a specific crime (for example, conspiracy to commit fraud) is called a/an __________.
The type of law concerned with whether a criminal defendant was treated properly within the legal system is called _____.
-Procedural criminal law
-Substantive criminal law
Procedural criminal law
T/F?: In the United States, our criminal legal system is combined with our civil legal system.
Prior to the classical school of criminology (e.g., Beccaria, Bentham) that emphasized rational decision making and punishment reform, most explanations for the cause of crime were based upon __________.
-Demonology or moral failure
Demonology or moral failure
As we discussed in class, many of the practices of our legal system in the United States, including precedent and the separation of civil and criminal law, are most directly taken from __________.
-Dutch appellate law
-The code of Hammurabi
-English common law
English common law
In order for most offenses to legally be considered crimes, they must have _____.
The concurrence of actus reus and mens rea
T/F?: The first organized, uniformed police force was created in early colonial America (late 1700s).
As we discussed in class and compared to many other developed countries in the world, American police forces are characterized by __________.
-Greater hierarchy (i.e., many different levels )
-Mostly federal control of police
-Fewer legal constraints on police behavior
-All of the above
As early as the 1700s, southern states in America used __________ as police forces.
-Uniformed and professional salaried individuals
-Vigilantes or groups of citizens
August Vollmer (1930s) was an American police chief mostly credited with reforming the way we police here in the U.S. by doing which of the following?
-Adding satellite-linked computers to police cars
-Creating different squads for different types of crimes (e.g., vice, homicide, juvenile)
-Making the police force more political
-Reducing the qualifications to become a police officer
Creating different squads for different types of crimes
One of the essential roles of the police is the regulation of the fair use of public spaces. This is called __________.
T/F?: Today, police officers spend most of their time dealing with violent crime.
Compared to the earliest English (or other European) courts, American courts are much more __________.
- Centralized (concentrated power) and hierarchical (many levels)
- Decentralized (diffuse power) and hierarchical (many levels)
- Decentralized (diffuse power) and simple (few levels)
- Centralized (concentrated power) and simple (few levels)
Decentralized (diffuse power) and hierarchical (many levels)
An arrangement between prosecutor and defendant that exchanges an admission of guilt for a specific sentence or change to the charges is called a __________.
T/F?: At the grand jury stage, the prosecution and defense present evidence to a public jury to determine if a trial is needed.
In the court system, the stage in which a defendant appears before the judge to hear their charges, enter a guilty/not guilty/no contest plea, and have their bail determined is called a __________.
-Establishes the courts as the third branch of government
-Created supreme court, gave congress the power to create additional courts
- Role and impact has evolved over time
the authority of a court to hear certain cases
major violations against society, punishable by prison time/other sanctions
private issues, violations are not punishable by prison
-Functions as gatekeeper of what cases will actually be brought to trial
-Has the upper hand and influence with plea bargaining but must act
-Main activities: fighting, negotiating, drafting, counseling, administering
the lawyer who represents accused offenders and convicted offenders in their dealings with criminal justice
-Can be either a private attorney or public defender, protects accused
I'm going to be adding more stuff later
ok cool thanks dude
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