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Physics Ch. 19 & Ch. 20
Terms in this set (49)
If the frequency of a particular wave is 20 Hz, its period is
What is the frequency of vibration of the electron in the antenna of a station broadcasting at 101.7 MHz on the FM dial?
101.7 million vibrations per second
Distinguish between these different aspects of a wave: period, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency.
Period is the time from one crest to the next, amplitude is the distance from the midpoint to a crest, wavelength is the distance from one crest to the next, and frequency is the number of crests that pass per second.
What travels in a wave from one location to another is _________.
Does the medium in which a wave travels move with the wave?
The wavelength of a transverse wave is the distance between successive crests (or troughs). What is the wavelength of a longitudinal wave?
The wavelength is the distance between successive maximum compressions (or rarefractions).
What happens to the frequency of the wave if you increase the wavelength, keeping the velocity of the wave constant?
The frequency decreases.
What happens to the frequency of the wave if you increase the wave velocity, keeping the wavelength of the wave constant?
The frequency increases.
How can you double the frequency of a wave if you have control over both the wavelength and the wave velocity?
You can either halve the wavelength, keeping the wave speed constant; or double the wave speed, keeping the wavelength constant.
What is the relationship among frequency, wavelength, and wave speed?
Wave speed is frequency multiplied by wavelength.
While fishing on the pier you observe that wave crests are spaced 2 meters and are moving at about 10 m/s, what is the frequency of this wave?
Standing waves are produced by _________.
Are standing waves a property of transverse waves, of longitudinal waves, or of both?
When a sound source approaches a stationary listener, the listener experiences an increase in sound _________.
In the Doppler effect, does frequency change? Does wave speed change?
Only frequency changes.
Can the Doppler effect be observed with longitudinal waves or with transverse waves?
When the bug is stationary and creating waves, how does the frequency of the wave some distance away from the bug compare with the frequency of the vibration of the bug?
The frequency of the wave some distance away is equal to the frequency of the vibration of the bug.
When the bug that is creating waves swims in the direction of the waves, how does the speed of the wave some distance away in front of the bug compare with the speed of the wave created by a stationary bug?
The speed of the wave some distance away is equal to the speed of the wave due to a stationary bug.
When the bug that is creating waves swims forward, how does the frequency of the wave some distance away in front of the bug compare with the frequency of the wave produced by a stationary bug?
The frequency of the wave some distance away in front of the bug is greater than the frequency produced by a stationary bug.
When the bug that is creating waves swims forward, how does the frequency of the wave some distance away behind the bug compare with the frequency produced by a stationary bug?
The frequency of the wave some distance away behind the bug is less than the frequency of the wave produced by a stationary bug.
How does the V shape of a bow wave change with the changing speed of the source?
The angle of the V becomes smaller as the speed of the source increases.
True or false: A sonic boom occurs only when an aircraft is breaking through the sound barrier. Defend your answer.
False. An aircraft creates a shock wave continuously as it is supersonic. This is heard as a sonic boom by an observer.
A railroad locomotive is at rest with its whistle shrieking, then starts moving toward you. Does the frequency of sound that you hear increase, decrease, or stay the same?
How about the wavelength reaching your ear?
How about the speed of sound in the air between you and the locomotive?
Stays the same
Given a wave of a particular wavelength and amplitude, what must be the amplitude, wavelength, and phase change of a wave you add to this wave to create a wave of twice the amplitude?
The added wave must have the same amplitude, the same wavelength, and a phase difference of 0 degrees with respect to the original wave.
Given a wave of a particular wavelength and amplitude, what must be the amplitude, wavelength, and phase change of a wave you add to the existing wave to completely destroy it?
The added wave must have the same amplitude, the same wavelength, and a phase difference of 180 degrees with respect to the original wave.
For maximum constructive interference between two waves, how must their crests and troughs align with each other?
The crests and troughs of one wave should align with the crests and troughs of the other wave respectively.
For complete destructive interference between two waves, how must their crests and troughs align with each other?
The crests and troughs of one wave should align with the troughs and crests of the other wave respectively.
What is the relationship between frequency and pitch?
Pitch is the human perception of sound frequency.
Distinguish between infrasonic and ultrasonic sound waves.
Infrasonic is too low in frequency (below 20 Hz) for humans to hear, whereas ultrasonic is too high (above 20,000 Hz).
Relative to solids and liquids, how does air rank as a conductor of sound?
Relative to solids and liquids, air is a poor conductor of sound.
The speed of sound in air varies with _________.
Do compressions and rarefactions travel in the same direction, or in opposite directions, in a wave.
They travel in the same direction at the same speed.
An echo is just _________.
the reflection of sound
What is the difference in the speed of sound on a warm day versus on a cold day?
It is faster on a warm day and slower on a cold day.
Why did the campers in Dr. Hewitt's story hear the sound of the campers across the lake more clearly at night than during the day?
The temperature change from cold at the surface to warm at the top changed the shape of the sound waves.
How does the direction of sound travel compare to the shapes of the sound waves?
The sound is at right angles to the waves.
How does the cooler air above the lake affect the movement of sound at night?
Because it is colder just above the surface and warmer higher above, the sound wave is refracted toward the ground.
How do the waves of sound travel on the night that produces the temperature inversion, and why?
The waves bend toward the ground because it is warmer above and colder lower below, and waves travel more slowly through the colder air.
Which is normally greater, the energy in ordinary sound or the energy in ordinary light? How does the speed of sound compare to the speed of light?
The energy in ordinary light is greater than the energy in ordinary sound. The speed of sound is a million times less than the speed of light.
Resonance occurs when forced vibration _________.
matches natural frequency
What kind of waves can exhibit interference?
All kinds of waves
What physical phenomenon underlies the production of beats?
Beats are produced by interference.
A percussion musical instrument produces musical notes by ____________.
vibrating a two-dimensional surface
Fourier analysis is based on the finding that all sound waves _________.
can be represented as a series of simple sine waves
In all musical instruments, quality of sound depends on the _________.
number and relative loudness of the partial tones
When sound at 60 decibels is boosted to 80 decibels, the sound has about _________.
100 times the intensity
How does the intensity of sound relate to amplitude?
Sound intensity increases with an increasing sound wave amplitude.
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