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KNH 468 Final (Notes Review)
Terms in this set (84)
circulation that supplies blood to all the body except to the lungs
flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
Which chamber receives deoxygenated blood?
Which chamber receives oxygenated blood?
inner lining of the heart
muscular, middle layer of the heart
outer layer of the heart
Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
What is an MI?
prolonged myocardial ischemia (coronary artery blockage)
What is the influence of pa/exercise on MI risk/severity of MI?
decreased risk and decreased severity
What determines the severity of an MI?
amount of tissue that dies and what area of tissue dies
What does high blood pressure do to the cell lining of the heart?
damages it, can cause atherosclerosis
depolarization passes through here cell to cell
structural, holds fibers together
What is force generation dependent upon?
length of myocytes and concentration of intracellular calcium
AV node has a ______ intrinsic rate than the SA node
What increases K+ conductance in the vagus nerve?
Mean Resting Arterial BP =
DBP + 0.33
Mean Arterial BP =
Cardiac Output x Peripheral Resistance
Where does an action potential originate in the heart?
What does the vagus nerve do?
innervates the SA node and AV node
holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate
What is low HR variability associated with?
depression, hypertension, heart disease, MI
Stroke Volume =
EDV - ESV (end diastolic volume - end systolic volume)
relaxation of the heart
contraction of the heart
When is the left ventricle most and least full?
most: end of diastole
least: end of systole
What leads to a higher EDV?
greater venoconstriction, greater muscle pumping, greater respiration
Frank Starling Mechanism
optimum length of myocytes causes more forceful contraction because of more cross bridges
__% of total blood flow from the heart goes to the muscle
Vasoconstriction in inactive vasculature causes _______ TPR in arm compared to leg exercise.
______ EDV during lower body exercise
________ sympathetic outflow to the heart during arm exercise
What are the functions of the cardiorespiratory system?
1. transport of O2 and nutrients to tissues in accordance with their needs
2. removal of CO2 and wastes from tissues
3. regulation of body temperature
mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs
exchange of gas molecules (oxygen and carbon dioxide) from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Higher percentage of ___ in the atmosphere than in the blood
Lower percentage of ___ in the atmosphere than in the blood
Only _____ and ______ air reaches the respiratory zone
warm and humid
How many alveolar sacs?
Pressure changes during inspiration/expiratin?
Inspiration: pressure outside is greater than in the lungs
Expiration: pressure outside is lower than in the lungs
Expiration is ______ at rest
Muscles of expiration
diaphragm pushed upward, ribs pulled downward and inward, decreased chest volume
Muscles of inspiration
diaphragm pushed back down, ribs lifted outward, increase in chest volume
volume of air moved per breath
What does spirometry measure?
volume of air flowing into and out of the lungs at rest and during forced inspiration and expiration
amount of air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled following a maximum inspiration
Total Lung Capacity
maximum amount of air in the lungs at the end of maximum inspiration
RV + VC
total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert independently
Each gram of Hb can transport ___ ml O2
•Which skeletal muscle fibers have the highest Mb levels?
•The respiratory control center is located where?
pons and medulla oblongata
responsive to PCO2 and H+ concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid
aortic and carotid bodies
What are aortic bodies responsive to?
PCO2, H+, and K+
What are carotid bodies responsive to?
PCO2, PO2, H+
What is the normal body temperature?
37 degrees Celsius
At what body temperature are we unable to produce ATP?
> 45 degrees Celsius
At what body temperature does metabolism slow and cardiac function become impaired?
< 34 degrees Celsius
What is the efficiency of the human body in terms of energy production? What happens to the rest?
20% ; given off as heat to maintain body temperature
Radiation is responsible for __% of heat loss at rest in a cool room
How can we increase convective heat loss?
exercising in front of a fan
Evaporation accounts for __% of heat loss at rest
Evaporation of sweat is dependent on what three factors?
1. ambient conditions (temp and humidity)
2. convective flow
3. amount of skin surface exposed
Vapor pressure of the skin
35 mm Hg
loss of muscle mass and function
What can sarcopenia be offset by?
progressive resistance training
High frequency and intensity of exercise may cause...
How does motor performance decrease with aging?
decreased max force, max shortening velocity, rate of force development, max power, force steadiness, increased fatigability
Mechanisms for impairments
decreased motor unit recruitment, low muscle glycogen content, inadequate recovery, elevated inflammation, decreased muscle protein synthesis
After six days of training there is a __% increase in VO2 max
After six days of training there is an __% increase in plasma volume
After six days of training there is a __% increase in stroke volume
Increased citrate inhibits ___, which slows _________
Are intracellular levels of calcium greater during resistance or endurance training?
When is AMPK activated?
during high intensity interval training and during submaximal endurance exercise.
When is P38 activated?
during endurance exercise primarily by exercise-induced production of free radicals
When is IGF-1/Akt/mTOR activated?
in response to resistance training, nutrients
When is CaMK activated?
by increased intracellular calcium
When is calmodulin activated?
by increased intracellular calcium
When is NFkB activated?
induced by free radicals and a number of other ligands
What's primarily responsible for the decrease in VO2max during the early portion of detraining?
initial decrease in stroke volume plasma volume
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