Intro to exercise science knowledge questions and application quizzes

In the book chapter titled Physical Activity by Astrand and Rodahl, how much more food did they estimate would be needed for a person who is working (or exercising) at maximal capacity, compared to at rest?
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Professional cycling has had much difficulty with cheating. Athletes and team doctors have discovered a variety of unnatural and illegal ways to improve sport performance. Cycling is highly aerobic which means oxygen is required to produce energy. If you have more red blood cells, you can carry more oxygen to working muscles. There are two methods of illegal blood doping to increase the number of red blood cells.
1. A few weeks before competition you would have some blood removed into a into a bag like when people give blood. You freeze the blood. Your body will pretty quickly replace the blood to normal levels. Before the race, you thaw and re infuse the blood. Now you (the athlete) have more than normal amounts of red blood cells. You can now carry more oxygen to yoru working muscles and have an unfair advantage.
2. You can also inject a hormone called erythropoetin (EPO) to stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood cells.
What two physiological systems are involved in method number 2.
Some research hypotheses are really hard to test in humans. For example, three major muscles cross the knee joint and produce force on the patellar tendon. We cannot really take the living human apart to directly measure how much force comes from each muscle. Which research approach below would be useful for learning about the contributions from individual muscles?computer modelingExample of applied sciencePhyscians do not know how many platelet rich plasma injections are needed for the best recovery from a muscle injury. This problem is investigated in two groups of mice that either get one shot or two shots per week after a muscle injury.Early studies demonstrated that living at high altitude can improve performance in endurance events like running. The researchers then wanted to learn the reason why this would happen. They hypothesized an increased number of red blood cells. What term best describes this type of research?MechanisticIn the peer-review process, who decides whether a paper will be published?the editorIn the reading assignment about how to read a scientific article, which goal was emphasized in the text.To become more efficient at reading scientific papers by learning where certain information is located.Which of the following subdisciplines of exercise science is best aligned with the research paper about triathlon transition T2? The methods used in the study will give you a hint.BiomechanicsIn the Results section of a scientific paper you can expect the author to explain whether the hypothesis was supported by the study and how the new findings fit within the current understanding of the topic.FalseConsider the equation below and select the correct statement about the kinematics of running. running speed = stride frequency X stride length.If stride frequency increases, running speed can stay the same if the runner decreases their stride length.In CHAPTER ONE - PHYSICAL ACTIVITY from Astrand and Rodahl (1977) the authors describe the evolution of the human body for mobility beginning with single celled organisms and finishing with our organ systems. What term below best represents this scheme of organization?vertical integrationWhich of the following items below is one of the main components of the endocrine system?hormonesYou are interested in the effects of anxiety on injury rates in competitive sports. Which two subdisciplines are most likely to provide the information that you are looking for?exercise and sport psychology, athletic training / sports medicineToday, the discipline of exercise science (or kinesiology) is not focused solely on peak athletic performance. Rather, it examines the function of the human body throughout the lifespan and in response to varying levels of physical activity, specific exercise training practices and different modalities of physical rehabilitation or injury/disease prevention. By studying peak performance and training practices, we can gain knowledge that is applicable to clinical conditions.TrueIn the PBS video about the marathon, the speaker discusses several pieces of information about why humans are well equipped for running. The majority of his support for this position comes from which discipline?evolutionary biologyIn the paper we examined about triathlon transitions (Gottschall and Palmer) the authors proposed a mechanism to explain how prior bicycling cadence might affect running performance. Which item below most accurately represents the authors suggestion?Through perseveration the human body will involuntarily continue the rhythm of a preceding movment if it is performed for an extended period of time.The figure(2 and 3) below is from Gottschall & Palmer (2002). Select the correct interpretations of the figures below.Knowing these two dependent variables would allow a person to make a conclusion about running speed. The independent variable is the same in the two graphs. If we multiply a stride length of 3 m/stride by a stride frequency of 1.5 stride/s we will get a running speed of 4.5 m/s.The figure(1) below is from Gottschall & Palmer (2002). Select the correct interpretations of the figure below. Be sure that your interpretations are only based on the data in the figure shown.Throughout the 16 laps of running, when the triatletes started at a high speed, the were able to maintain a high speed to the finish. The difference between the fast and slow conditons was approximately .5 m/s.The figure(1.1) below is from Gottschall & Palmer (2002). Select the correct interpretations of the figure below. Be sure that your interpretations are only based on the data in the figure shown.The differences between conditions was statistically significant. The fast condition resulted in higher stride frequency and the slow condition resulted in lower stride frequency, compared to control cycling cadence. In the first four laps, stride frequency changed the most in the fast conditon.Based on the graph(Figure 4 Gottschall and Palmer) below, one could conclude that prior bicycling cadence can affect stance time immediately after the transition but this affect will wear off as the run progresses.TrueYou are interested in losing some weight and your roommate has been trying to convince you to try the Keto diet for weight loss. This is a high fat low carbohydrate diet. They lost 15 pounds in 8 weeks after switching to Keto. You have also heard that there may be risks associated with the Keto diet and you wonder what happens to body weight (or metabolism) once a person stops the diet. You decide to look for better types of evidence to inform your decision. You disregard your roommate's experience in your decision making process because it is only ____________ evidence.anecdotalIn the paper about triathlon transitions, which of the following best categorizes the dependent variables?the kinematics of runningTitle: Biomechanics of cross-country ski racing (modified from Bilodeau et al., 1996) This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers were videotaped as they skied two different 30 meter sections of a race; a 7 degrees uphill section and a flat section. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their propulsive kick forces and pole pushes and enhance cycle length. Think about the findings of the triathlon transition study compared to the findings of this study. In cross country skiing, a "cycle" is equivalent to a "stride" in running. Select the statements below that are true about the two studiesThe practical suggestion in the cross country ski paper was to train the kinetics in order to improve the kinematics Both studies used motion capture technology to obtain kinematic measures. In the cross country skiing study, the faster athletes had longer cycle length.In the PBS video about Marathon, there was a section about Hitting the Wall. What two physiological systems were most involved in this condition?nervous,energyWhich of the central themes of Exercise Science is best represented by the difference between the dotted line and the solid line in this figure? Note that 'absolute load' is exercise load and this means the total of training frequency, duration and intensity.adaptive processesIn the paper about triathlon transitions, the methods and the interpretation of findings can be best-aligned with two subdisciplines of exercise science. Select the two subdisciplines below.Motor Behavior, BiomechanicsIn the peer review process, 2 individuals recommend that a paper should be published after minor revisions and 1 individual recommends that the paper should be rejected due to severe flaws in the experiment. These individuals would be the _______________.ReviewersIn the image below, notice the cap that has sensors to measure brain waves (electroencephlography, ECG) and the pair of force plates. Not visible are sensors that record heart rate and breathing rate. Athletes in the sport of winter biathlon practice mental/psychological strategies (these are skills) to reach a state of calm before squeezing the trigger. This state of calm may modify their heart rate, breathing and postural sway (steadiness) and improve their motor performance. Select all the subdisciplines that are represented in this examination of elite sport performance. Image is from Laaksonen et al., 2018.motor behavior, biomechanics, exercise physiology, sports and exercise psychologyA researcher is interested in the effects of caffeine on reaction time. In an experiment, 20 research participants (subjects) are given beverages with different amounts of caffeine (dose) and reaction time is measured with a precise timing system. Which of the following is the independent variable in this study.caffeine doseIn the Tale of Two Cyclists vignette from class, the German sprint cyclist needed to maintain 300 watts in order to cook toast.FalseIn the Tale of Two Cyclists vignette from class, the Swiss winner of the Race Across America (RAAM) maintained 162.9 watts for about 7 days that included 168.9 hours of riding time and only 15 hours of time not moving (~2 hours per day).TrueWhich soft tissue connects bone to bone.LigamentPerhaps you are sitting in a chair with good posture. Select two terms from the list that describe this position. Your lower extremity joints are in the positions of ..Knee Flexion Hip FlexionSelect the correct statement about the transfer of power across joints by the biarticular muscle rectus femoris (RF), which crosses the hip and knee.RF transfers power generated by the hip extensors to become knee extension power.During the lowering phase of a bicep curl, the bicep muscle contraction is _________, and is this type of contraction can generate the ________amount of force.Eccentric, GreatestThe type of muscular contraction in which there is no change in muscle lengthIsometricYou are playing soccer. You are running straight ahead and then cut sharply to the left to get away from a defender. In what direction were your cutting forces directed?Medial/LateralThe unit of muscle between two z-lines that contains the contractile proteinssarcomereA bundle of muscle fibers (muscle cells) contained within a sheath of connective tissue is calleda fascicleYou are coaching a sprinter. As you move from pre-season towards the competitive season you have your athlete switch from heavy bilateral squats and deadlifts to unilateral exercises with less weight and more speed and also sprints up stadium stairs. Which training principle did you apply when you changed the types of exercises?Specificityour running goal is to improve the speed of your 5 kilometer (k) race pace. Your current 5k race pace is currently around a 8 minute/mile. Which of the training ideas below is best aligned with the overload principle for this speed-based goal?Run an interval workout as follows: 5 minutes easy warm up Three 1k intervals run at 7:30 minute/mile pace with full recovery between 5 minutes easy cool downFemale athletes have non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries more frequently than males. Aware of these epidemiological data, some athletic programs invest in off-season exercise programs for their female athletes to try to prevent these injuries. These programs often include training the strength and endurance of core muscles and also plyometric drills (jumping, skipping). The same program can be used for a variety of female sport teams (basketball, soccer, field hockey, ice hockey). Which training principle was applied to justify providing this program to females but not males?individual differencesIf ATP is not available, the myosin head will not let go of actin.TrueThe protein molecule that does the mechanical work in muscle contraction isMyosinWhat protein complex is moved out of the way by the release of calcium to allow the formation of cross bridges between actin and myosin?troponin - tropomyosinAlong which structure do action potentials travel to inner regions of the muscle cell?t-tubuleMuscle relaxation occurs whencalcium ions are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulumLactate made by producers like the fast twitch fibers is transferred to consumers such as slow twitch fibers or through the blood supply to organs (brain, liver, kidney and heart) that can use lactate as a fuel. What is this process called?Lactate ShuttleAmong the following, which provides ATP most quickly?Creatine PhosphateWhich term below is the set of chemical reactions that provide energy to sustain life?MetabolismWhich of the following substrates is used in glycolysis to make ATP?GlucoseHow is glucose stored in muscle?GlycogenIn very long tests of endurance (8 hours), the more likely source of stored energy is.AdipocytesWhich muscle fiber type has more anaerobic enzymes?Fast Twitch fiberWhich of the following nutrients is predominately responsible for providing energy during moderate to high intensity physical activity or exercise?CarbohydratesSelect the TRUE statement about energy processes in the mitochondria.Energy processes in the mitochondria are relatively slow but provide a lot of ATP.Which energy system produces the greatest amount of ATP per molecule of substrate?Beta Oxidative PathwayWhich of the following occurs in the mitochondria?Krebs CycleUsain Bolt ran the 100-meter dash in 9.68 seconds. Which of the option below provided most of the ATP he used?Creatine PhosphateWhich of the following is the direct energy source for muscular contraction?Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Which of the following tests is based on a blood draw taken at different exercise workloads?Lactate Threshold TestWhat technique below is often involved in studying the enzymatic energy profile of muscle?Muscle BiopsyWhich measurement below is is better for predicting a hockey player's performance during 30-45 seconds of intense play ?Wingate TestVO2 Max is a measurement of which of the following?Maximal oxygen consumption per minuteThe flat bench press involves the muscles primarily of the chest and arms. The 1-RM and 10-RM tests are two means to measure the strength of these muscles. One test will inform you more about muscle size and fiber type while the other test relates more to the ATP-PC system. Which test is more informative on the ATP-PC system?10-RMIn the research paper that compared sprint interval training to endurance (continuous) training, what was the main general conclusion?Sprint interval training can provide similar aerobic (oxitative) adaptations as endurance training in much less time.In the research paper that compared sprint interval training to endurance (continuous) training, Figure 1 supports what interesting finding about both types of training?After training, the body uses more fat and less carbohydrate during continuous exercise at 65% of a maximum exercise intensity.Select the option below that is the approximate mechanical power that an elite endurance bicyclist can sustain for a 7-day continuous race165 WattsYou coach several runners who range in age from young to old. You read a research paper and the conclusion was that the older Achilles tendon in older adults requires more time to recover after a half marathon than in young adults. Keeping all other training parameters equal, you reschedule training to place two recovery days after the long run of the week in your older runners. Select the true statement below.You are applying the principle of individual differencesThe rate of cross bridge cycling is one of the things that determines peak power. What is the mechanistic basis of this rate at the protein/molecular level?mysosin heavy chain isoformSelect the two conditions below that contribute to hamstring injuries while sprinting.ccentric muscle contraction the z-lines (or z-disks) are far apartWhy is it unlikely that a runner will bonk (hit the wall) within the first two hours of a run?Muscle GlycogenWhat type of hamstring muscle is more frequently injured while sprinting?biarticularThomas DeLorme is typically credited with establishing the principles of progressive overload resistance training, which relates to the overload principle. Select the true statements belowRecognizing the greater need for strength than endurance among the wounded warriors, he was applying specificity. Thomas DeLorme's work with progressive overload in wounded warriors is an example of the fact that knowledge and our scientific understanding of something can change over time.Below are the results(Table 1) of a study that compared speed skating in Conventional skates vs. Klap skates. Select the true statements below based on these results and how they compare to results in the triathlon transition study (Gottschall & Palmer).In the table above, the independent variable is skate type. Klap skates and the high cadence condition in the triathlon study both increased velocity in similar ways.In the paper that compared sprint interval training to traditional endurance training the authors stated that there may have been benefits of endurance training that were not measured. You decide to do a follow-up study to investigate some possible benefits of endurance training. Which of the following three measures, would be most likely to benefit from the endurance training?the amount of lipoprotein lipaseIn the paper about push-off mechanics in speed skating, Klap skates improved power output by how much?25 WattsWhat statement below is best supported by the results in the graph below? (Figure 5 interval vs endurance Training)Both groups used less phosphocreatine during this bike test after training, compared to before training.What positions are shown in the figure? (Figure 2 of Klap Skates paper)Knee flexion Hip flexionYou have been training to improve your anaerobic power. You go to a lab where they can test your blood lactate threshold. Compared to pre-training, you would want your post-training curve to be shifted to the right.TrueIn the paper that compared sprint interval training to traditional endurance training, only the endurance training group improved their aerobic capacity.FalseIn the paper that compared sprint interval training to traditional endurance training, which of the following effects of training was observed?The sprint interval training group had an increase in citrate synthase activity. The endurance training group had an increase in citrate synthase activity.Consider the mechanical properties of muscle. Which letter above marks the location where there is too much overlap between actin and myosin to generate force?EWhere are red blood cells (RBC) made?Bone MarrowAfter 6 weeks of running 1 mile per day, my resting heart rate has decreased. Which is the best statement to describe this change?This is a chronic adaptation to exercise that may be related to an increased stroke volume.Protein that carries oxygen in muscleMyoglobinTyler Hamilton, a professional cyclist and teammate of Lance Armonstrong on US Postal cheated by using a substance called erythropoetin (EPO). What did this do?Increased hematocritWhich TWO chambers will contain oxygenated blood?Left atrium and left ventricleChambers of the heart are filling during systole.FalseCarbon monoxide and carbon monoxide poisoning affect which of the following?HemoglobinDuring exercise, the body allows greater flow of blood to working muscles by...VasodilationA myocardial infarction (heart attack) can be caused by a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.TrueBased on key paragraphs in a paper about creatine supplementation in vegetarian athletes, which of the following statements are true.Data indicates that creatine supplementation might be most beneficial for athletes with low pre-existing muscle creatine stores. When supplemented with creatine, vegetatians had greater gains in muscle strength compared to omnivores.In figure 2a of the ultraendurance race paper (Helge, 2007), what happened to the exctracellular glucose levels in subject three during the period of time when they were nauseous (upset stomach) can could not eat food?The glucose level dropped from a peak of around 6-7 units to about 3 units. Extracellular glucose dropped to a level that was much lower than that of Subject 6, who was able to eat food during the same period of time.How long was the race in the ultraendurance race paper (Helge, 2007)?4-5 daysConsider the main finding of the ultraendurance race paper (Helge, 2007) as you answer this true/false question. It takes many thousands of years to activate metabolic genes.FalseIn the interview of Tyler Hamilton, he mentions a hematocrit level that the cheating cyclists would try to get to without going over. What was this level? (Do you know what hematocrit is?)50If you began training for a really long ultra-distance race (a 24-30 hour event like the 100-mile Western States Ultra Trail Marathon), which enzyme would want to increase the most for this event.lipoprotein lipaseTED - Glymphatic. Being able to recognize broad patterns that exist across a body of knowledge is a good indicator of your intellectual abilities. What did Dr. Iliff have to say about how we can think of all of biology that we observe? What can we think of biology as???a series of problems and solutionsTED - Glymphatic. As discussed by Dr. Iliff, what is the "first" main problem and solution faced by every organ?nutrient supplyTED - Glymphatic. As discussed by Dr. Iliff, what is the second main problem and solution faced by every organ?removal of wasteWhat does the lymphatic system do and does the brain have one?removes waste, noTED - Glymphatic. How does the glymphatic system work?Cerebrospinal fluid moves around on the outside of blood vessels to flush wastes out of the brain.TED - Glymphatic. What is the significance of sleep for the glymphatic system?During sleep, brain cells shirnk and this provides room for cerebrospinal fluid to flow.TED - Glymphatic. What metaphor did Dr. Iliff use to describe the role of sleep in brain health?It is like daily house cleaning.TED - Glymphatic. According to Iliff, sleep is a part of the biological solution for waste removal from the brain.TrueFor what reason involving the endocrine system would sleep loss impair strength gains? (TED: Sleep as a superpower)Less testosteroneWhat do we know about how the timing of sleep affects the learning of new material? (TED: Sleep as a superpower)Sleep is critical before and after learning new material.What brain area is involved in memory and learning and what does sleep loss do to it? (TED: Sleep as a superpower)hippocampus, shuts it downWhat mechanism did Dr. Walker focus on as important in good quality sleep? (TED: Sleep as a superpower)sleep spindles in deep sleep brainwavesThrough what mechanism does sleep contribute to cancer prevention? (TED: Sleep as a superpower)Sleep improves immune function by increasing natural killer cells. These cells attack tumors.The difference between 6 and 8 hours of sleep is large enough to cause health problems. (TED: Sleep as a superpower)TrueThe link between loss of sleep and cancer is so strong that the World Health Organization (WHO) has classified any form of nighttime shift work as a possible carcinogen. (TED: Sleep as a superpower)TrueMark the two recommendations to improve sleep that Dr. Walker considered most important. (TED: Sleep as a superpower)Go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends. Sleep in a cooler room.Based on the information that Dr. Walker presented about Natural Killer cells, one could reasonably assume that a good sleep schedule is protective against COVID-19. (Sleep as a Superpower)TrueTwo papers in this class have 1) compared sprint interval training and endurance training and 2) described the effects of prolonged ultraendurance exercise. What statement below most accurately describes the adaptations reported in these two papers?Sprint interval training, endurance training, and ultraendurance competition all stimualte changes that help maintiain carbohydrate (glucose) levels during submaximal exercise.Sleep loss and overtraining have which of the following in common?A reduction in growth factors or anabolic hormones.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates which of the following.the growth of new capillariesSelect all the true statements about erythropoetin (EPO).EPO is a hormone Stimulates the production of red blood cells Is released by the kidney and acts on the bone marrow.Which chamber of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs?left atriumIn the Tale of Two Cyclists, which athlete likely has the most lipoprotein lipase?the cyclist who won the Race Across AmericaAll of the biology that we observe is a set of problems and solutions. Select the correct statements about the glymphatic system below.In the glymphatic system, brain neurons shrink while a person sleeps and this allows cerebrospinal fluid to flush wastes out of the brain. Good sleep and a well functioning glymphatic system can remove amalyoid beta protein and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease.It is known that a reduced quality of sleep occurs with aging and that this is associated with memory problems, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. What is the link between high quality deep sleep and learning or memory function?the presence of sleep spindles in brain wavesYou are a multi-sport athlete (you participate in all the intramural sports you can manage). Your training goal is to improve your anaerobic power for high intensity bouts of activity in team sports. You turn this into a mini research project and find 3 friends to join you in a training program that involves interval training (sprinting up the football stadium steps). Which of the following fitness tests below is the best match for evaluating your progress towards your goal?the Wingate testWhich component of blood pressure measurement is the pressure during the relaxation of the heart?diastolicStroke volume is determined by the size of the left ventricle and does not change during exercise.FalseWhich of the following types of electrical stimulation needs to specify the timing of muscle stimulation in a way that produces a useful activity of daily living?Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)The size of the mitochondrion is known to increase with training. Which of the following would make the mitochondrion increase in size?an increase in citrate synthase in increase in ATP synthaseIf you wanted to look for evidence of adaptations to long term training, what part of the heart would be most informative?Left ventricleYour progressive overload training has been going well. You started with an inclined treadmill walking program with 12 miles per week and and you are now running that same weekly distance (still inclined) at about 6.2 miles per hour. You were tested with a metabolic cart before your training began and again after 6 weeks. You were tested on a stationary bike at the same submaximal exercise intensity at both visits (150 Watts). Which statement below best matches your expectations about your respiratory exchange ratio (RER) results.Your RER decreased from .84 to .74.In a person with long term paralysis of the legs, what would be the most abundant muscle fiber type in the legs?Fast Glycolytic (FG)The title of a 2016 paper by Shimizu and others is "Low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction improves vascular endothelial function and peripheral blood circulation in healthy elderly people". Resistance training is recommended for older adults to maintain their mobility and health. However, some older adults cannot safely train with heavy overload (high intensity). Blood flow restriction (BFR) training uses devices like blood pressure cuffs to block the blood supply to exercising muscles. This causes hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions that increase the training stimulus. With BFR, the older adults can lift lighter weights and experience meaningful improvements in strength and other aspects of health. The table below shows data from this study before and after a single exercise session in a Non-BFR group and in a BFR group. In the table below, which dependent variable is the most likely mechanism that resulted in improved peripheral blood circulation?vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)Select the true statements about the figure below. Blood Lactate vs Exercise Intensity (AQ 3)Runners in the ultraendurance race spent most of their time at location A on this curve. An increase in lipoprotein lipase enzyme would result in this person's curve being shifted to the right. C marks the location of a person's lactate threshold.Select the correct statement about the figure below. Blood Lactate vs Exercise Intensity (AQ 3)At location A, a person would be using less carbohydrate to support the exercise, compared to locaton B.The part of the neuron that carries nerve impulses to muscle fibers in the periphery.AxonWhich neurotransmitter communicates excitation from nerve to muscle?acetylcholineSpecialized structures that detect information about the position of the body and its movement.proprioceptorsWhich sensory receptor or sensory apparatus contains fluid that moves when we accelerate our bodies?The vestibular apparatusIn the patellar tendon tap reflex, the stimulus that causes contraction of quadriceps muscles isthe quick stretch of the quadriceps muscle.You are able to grasp and lift an object without continually watching both your hand and the object. For this high quality control, you are utilizingkinesthesisWhich of the following was a main conclusion of the moving room experiment?Very young children (toddlers) are highly dependent on visual inforamtion for the control of upright stance.Cutaneous sensation from the skin is the one sensory modality that does not contribute to our sense of position. Skin informs us about different aspects of touch and pain but not about movement.FalseWhich of the following sense organs detects tension in the muscle-tendon unit?Golgi Tendon OrganWhile you are walking you might slip, trip, or get hit by a ball. Each of these events will disrupt your 'motor program' for walking and your nervous system has functions that will help you stay balanced. What are these events called? This relates to the paper "Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control:Effect of a single training session" and to the video about the Falls lab at UD.perturbationsConsider the paper "Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: Effect of a single training session". What research method or methods are shown in their figure 1?biomechanics - kinetics biomechanics - kinematics electromyographyConsider the paper "Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: Effect of a single training session". Which of the following would be considered an anticipatory postural adjustment (APA)?Activating your postural muscles before you take a high velocity slapshot in hockey. Activating your postural muscles before you catch a heavy medicine ball.You work in a sports medicine clinic with a variety of patients who need to recover their balance. Some have had a ankle sprains and others have had concussions. For each of them, you provide a set of exercises that they progress through over 4 weeks. Week 1: practice single leg stance Week 2: practice single leg stance with eye's closed Week 3: practice single leg stance while catching a ball Week 4: practice single leg stance on a wobbly surface while catching a ball What training principle was a applied?overloadYou work in a sports medicine clinic with a variety of patients who need to recover their balance. Some have had a ankle sprains and others have had concussions. Which of the following exercises would increase the dependence on the vestibular apparatus the most?practice single leg stance with eye's closedWhat is the name of the cell in the vestibular apparatus that detects accelerations of the head?hair cellWhich category of biomechanical analysis will involve the use of a force plate?kineticsRecall the video about the Falls Lab and Perturbation Treadmill When you watched the video, you heard a discussion of "motion capture" and you saw what leading edge technology can do. You saw a camera system and reflective markers taped do different locations of the human body in both the upper and lower extremities. Recordings are converted to a stick figure or skeletal representation of the subject, from which positions, velocities and accelerations are calculated. What term below is describes this category of analysis?Biomechanics - kinematicsIn the video about the Falls Lab and Perturbation Treadmill you saw a person who was standing upright on the treadmill. The treadmill was suddenly turned on so that the researchers could analyze the subject's first step. When this happened, the subject's foot quickly moved in the posterior direction and this stretched the calf muscle. Which sensory organ detects this abrupt stretch?muscle spindleSelect the pair that represents the main control mechanisms at the motor unit level.recruitment and rate codingAs a person increases their muscular force, motor units become involved in a random order.FalseA motor unit in a muscle that is designed for precision would have fewer muscle fibers per motor neuron.TrueA motor unit consists of all the motor neurons that are dedicated to a muscle.TrueThe number of motor neurons in a motor unit depends on how many muscle fibers there are (more fibers need more neurons).FalseDuring a muscle contraction with a steady increase in force, slow twitch muscle fibers are recruited before fast twitch muscle fibers.TrueIn rapid elbow extension, a component of throwing, movement velocity is increased byLater antagonist burstIn human movement science, we examine the patterns of muscle activation using the methods ofelectromyography (EMG)The brain and spinal cord are the main components of theCentral Nervous SystemWhich of the motor behaviors below involves the triphasic burst pattern?Rapid movements like throwingWhere is the most likely place to find the hypothesis statement in a scientific paper?The later paragraphs of the introduction.You are throwing and catching a medicine ball with a partner at the gym. The throws are accurate and reach you at your body's midline at about chest level. When the ball comes towards your visual system is involved in predicting its arrival. Before the ball arrives, which action below will your body do (1 response) and how do you describe this action (second response)? Select the two best responses.You will prepare muscles to repond to forces in the anterior-posterior direction. How your body prepares for the upcoming forces is called anticipatory postural control.Psychometric tests suggest that in volleyball, rugby and handball, attacking players aremore emotionally variable and extroverted than defensive playersImagery duplicates a motor pattern in the brain but on a smaller scale. It activates the same brain areas used in the real movement. What hypothesized mechanism of Mental Imagery is this?Psychoneuromuscular theoryWhich of the following athletes tend to be more emotionally stable and introverted?DefendersIf you are a mellow/calm person but are terribly stressed about your next exam youhave high state anxiety and low trait anxietyA sport psychologist examined your POMS results over the course of a competitive season. A flattening of the profile would indicate ...staleness / overtrainingAccording to the Yerkes-Dodson Law (the inverted U), high levels of arousal indicate a problem with anxiety.FalseIn the graph psychometric test results from the Navy Seal hell week study , what conclusions did the data support?Caffeine improved scores related to vigor and depression.In order manipulate your own level of arousal for optimal performance, you must understandyour own arousal profile and at what level of arousal is your performance best methods you can use to modify your arousal up or down when you are outside of the optimal rangeImagery involves using all the senses to create or re-create an experience in the mind. According to ___________________ theory, imagery helps the brain to make a blueprint of the movement sequence without actually sending any messages to the muscles.Symbolic LearningThe supplemental motor areais active during the mental rehearsal of complex movements.Results from the profile of mood sates inventory (POMS) indicate that world class athletes, who are not overtrained, have an iceberg profile in which...vigor is above the population averageWhich of the following items can help a person to manage their anxiety before performancepreparation experience rituals mental imagery familiarizationWhich of the following is an example of closed loop control?slowing down during a running race because you feel like you started to fast and you want to be able to finishWhich of the following lists the stages of motor learning in the correct sequence from beginner to expert?cognitive, associative, autonomousIn the figure from a contextual interference study below, the three lines represent three different groups of skilled baseball players in three different batting practice conditions. The conditions are: a control group that does not have batting practice, a group that has blocked practice, and a group that has random practice. Based on what you know about this study from learning materials, and without the graph's legend, which symbols represent the group that used random practice?filled squaresThe image below is the result of a survey that asks about how a person feels in 6 different domains listed along the x-axis. These are real data from medical doctors. The lines marked as 'pre' (solid) and 'post' (dashed) represent results of the survey before and after a 24-hour shift of being on-call (assume significant sleep loss). These data were collected to improve performance of staff based on 1) reducing medical errors and 2) improving doctor-patient interactions. Select the items below that correctly interpret the results.These data suggest a greater risk of medical errors during long "on-call" shifts. The pattern of change resembles that seen with overtraining in athletesWhich of the following feedback schedules is intended to help the athlete develop their own sensation and awareness of motor errors?fading knowledge of resultsOne of the mechanisms through which higher physical activity levels can enhance learning is through the release of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).TrueHebb's rule (or Hebb's law) is a foundational theory that related to psychology motor learning and neuroscience. You may find different versions of the rule, but it states something like this: "When one cell repeatedly assists in firing another, the axon of the first cell develops synaptic knobs (or enlarges them if they already exist) in contact with the soma of the second cell." Some have simplified the principle further to say that "cells that fire together wire together." And, related to this, the formation of new synapses is called synaptogenesis.TrueIf a homework assignment is too easy, which of the following statements would be true.the amount of learning will be low homework performance will be high you are practicing below your challenge pointWhen I promote exercise for people with Parkinson's disease, I like to show a video in which one of our research participants named Bob tells his success story with exercise. He is 74 years old and has Parkinson's disease. Which aspect of self efficacy theory does this strategy follow?Vicarious ExperienceExercise participation and adherence is influenced by confidence in one's ability to succeed at an exercise program.TrueYou want to improve the information processing rates of players on your flag football team. You find software that shows them segments of game film where they are asked to point as quickly as possible to the receiver in the best scoring position. You show the film at normal speed and then at 1.5X the normal speed (faster). Some team members who are great athletes but have no experience with football are really bad at this drill and not getting better. You think you might have a practice problem related to...the challenge pointYou are in a research study about motor unit firing rates. You produce an increase and then a decrease in isometric muscle force that resembles a triangle. Among the motor units recruited into this task, the LAST one to stop firing probably has the smallest soma.TrueWhich portion of the graph indicates where a person's RER is more likely to be closer to .7.AWhat does closing the eyes do to the amount of postural sway in healthy adults?Closing the eyes increases postural sway.A 24 week Tai Chi program improved the ability to detect passive motion of the knee and ankle joints in older women. This is an improvement in _______________.ProprioceptionYou want to train for improved balance and know that the speed of small muscle contractions is more important than strength. Which adaptation at the motor unit level are you more interested in achieving?higher initial motor unit firing ratesBrain imaging studies performed by Hubert et al. (2007) showed that during the earliest stage of motor learning, the prefrontal cortex of the brain was highly active. As motor learning progressed towards expert performance, the prefrontal cortex became less active. Select the best interpretation below.Activity in the prefrontal cortex is required for the cognitive phase.Trailmaking A and Trailmaking B are two timed psychometric tests that provide information about a person's cognition (information processing and executive function). Trailmaking B is a more complex task and the resulting times are longer than those from Trailmaking A, which is simpler. Select the best option below.Trailmaking B is like choice reaction time.At this point in the semester we might be feeling increased tension, fatigue and confusion . If this is true what would we say about our profile of mood states.It is a bit flatIn a study we discussed about the effects of strength training on maximal motor unit firing rates, which of the following observations were made?After six weeks of training, maximal firing rates in older adults were close to those seen in young adults. Maximal motor unit firing rates increased in young and old adults before the training program even began.In one study that we discussed, Navy Seals were given caffeine during their Hell Week. In a four-choice reaction time task, four measurements were analyzed. Which two measures below had the best improvements with caffeine.time-out errors premature errorsStretching the skin around a joint can cause errors in position sense.TrueOne study about slackline training for balance resulted in a reduction in medio-lateral sway while on the slackline that was due to and increase in reflex strength.FalseAssuming that you are not of the Sherpa ethnicity, would any of your adaptations to high altitude training be passed on to your children?NoWhich of the following item(s) below contributed to the natural selection of genes that promote elite high altitude performance in Himalayan Sherpa.Better birth outcomes in Sherpa womenEven though there is no biological basis for different races, the social construct of race remains an important topic in health sciences research because there are huge racial differences in health.TrueThe sickle-shaped red blood cells, although a cause of anemia, were protective against the mosquito-borne disease called malaria.TrueWhich of the following is the best interpretation of hypobaric hypoxia?low oxygen levels due to lower atmospheric pressureWhich of the following are the characteristics of sickle cell disease?In SCD, the red blood cells become hard and sticky and look like a C-shaped farm tool called a "sickle". Sickle cells die early, which causes a constant shortage of red blood cells. Sickle cells can get stuck in small blood vessels and block the flow of blood and oxygen to organs in the body. These blockages cause repeated episodes of severe pain, organ damage, serious infections, or even stroke.Which of the following recommendations represents important critical gaps and future directions for the detection of sickle cell trait (SCT) and the prevention of sickle cell disease (SCD)?By including educational materials and providing genetic counseling at the same time that families are given positive SCT results, the occurrence and public health burden of SCD might be reduced.In the College of Health Sciences (CHS), we commit to structure the entire curricula to include diverse perspectives, experiences, and histories and employ teaching strategies that promote intellectual engagement, social skills, empathy, and racial understanding, to prepared students for success in a diverse and global workplace. Which of following is most related to this week's instruction about the Himalayan Sherpa and Sickle Cell Disease?racial understandingA knowledge of geography can be quite relevant in health sciences. You might also benefit from an elective in entymology (the study of insects). Look at Africa in the image below. Why is there a clear horizontal line above which the origin of sickle cell disease ends (it is orange)? What do you know about North Africa? Hint: look up a map of the Sahara desert. Also consider the definition of a vector (from the CDC): Some mosquitoes can be vectors. A vector is an animal, insect, or tick that spreads pathogens (germs) to people and animals. The germs (viruses and parasites) that mosquitoes spread can make you sick. What else do we know? Some mosquitoes like living near people, while others prefer forests, marshes, or tall grasses. All mosquitoes like water because mosquito larvae and pupae (Links to an external site.) live in the water with little or no flow.Mosquito poulations in the Sahara desert are quite low because of the dry climate. Therefore, there was no slective pressure of malaria causing people from the norther part of Africa (Saharan) to keep the sickle cell geneSherpa means to carry.FalseThe Han Chinese and Sherpa people both inherited the Epas1 gene. This gene was inherited from whom?DenisoviansWhich of the following conditions is due to swelling and the accumulation of fluids in the lungs.high altitude pulmonary edemaWhich of the following processes would deliver more blood to a tissue?vasodilationSherpa people can produce more power at high altitude than trained non-Sherpa lowlanders. Select the two correct reasons for this from the list below.more capillaries in their muscles bigger lungsOn a multi-day expedition, who will lose more weight due to changes in metabolism?acclimatized and trained non-Sherpa lowlandersSherpa have higher levels of nitric oxide compared to non-Sherpa lowlanders.TrueWhich of the following groups of people show the biggest benefits of beetroot juice supplementation?people with abnormally low levels of nitic oxide (NO)Based on the research done by the National Geographic photo journalist, what is one main reason why Sherpa parents send their children to the city for education?So that their children do not have to earn a living by climbing Mt. Everest.Which process requires more oxygen?Using fats for energy.Through what mechanism is beetroot juice thought to improve endurance performance?VasodilationWhich person below won the gold medal in the 1968 Olympics and inspired a nation of runners.Kip KeinoWhat town in Kenya is the location of the St. Patrick's school where Brother Colm teaches, trains and mentors the athletes?ItenAt the time of the documentary, Br. Colm had been working there for 25 years. He said that his approach to working with these young athletes is to lay the foundation. He considers his program a _________ camp and not a coaching camp.LearningBr. Colm used a training framework with the acronym F.A.S.T. What does the letter T stand for?TimingBr. Colm explained the diagonal running exercise. We do certain things to distract the body. This exercise is a distraction to core strength. Can you make any connections between these exercises and things we have examined in the Motor Behavior section? What does your body have to do if you are swinging your arms to the side like this while jogging?Anticipatory postural control is being trained in this drill. The core muscles will be activated to maintain the stability of the trunk while running.What behavior change theory is related to the wall of pictures and the well-known history of past students?Self efficacy through vicarious experiencesAfter breaking records and having big successes in racing, Br. Colm had David Rudisha return to Iten and do something very important. The aim was to make sure that he returns to reality from the world of being a media icon. What did David do when he returned to Iten?He led training sessions for the school's junior athletesWhat was David Rudisha's answer about east African running success?When we were young we were barefooted and learned a good feeling with the ground.Interview with Silas Too, another student who trains with David Rudisha. How many times do you train each day?2x per day on school days and, on holiday, 3x / day, with the first workout at 5:00 am.In the beginning of Part 3, what morning exercise is shown.YogaIn part 3, Eamonn went for a morning run with Samuel. About how many runners joined the group by the end?50Because of wealthy donors, the track in Iten is a state of the art facility and may even be better than Nike's track in Oregon.FalseProfessor Boit was asked "What does Br. Colm do that is so special?". What was his answer?Consistency Taking time Not pushing too hard Building confidenceWhen Brother Colm O'Connell took the position at St. Patrick's Mission School, what was his experience as a coach?He coached soccer.From whom did Br. Colm learn his early coaching?The athletes he was trainingWhat does Eamonn Coghlan ultimately conclude about why the runners from St. Patrick's (and Kenya) are so good.There is no single thing. It is a "perfect storm of conditions".Based on his lived experiences and his deep examination of Kenyan runners trained by Br. Colm O'Connell, Eamonn reflects at the end of the documentary about "How hard it is sometimes to achieve _________________."SimplicityThroughout the documentary, was there any evidence that the success of these athletes is a result of modern science and technology, such as the use of kinematics, kinetics, blood analysis, muscle fiber typing?no