BIOL 278 Final

A white-tailed kite needs to defend a feeding territory. What will guide the size of the territory?
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A. The size is genetically programmed to be 3.7 hectares per bird
B*. the size depends on the density of food in the area; the denser the food, the smaller the territory
C. the size depends on the abundance of competitors; the more competitors the larger the territory that is needed
D. all of the above
E. b and c both contribute
A. The challenge effect is a term used for the observation that testosterone levels rise in mice that have won contests against other mice
B. The contests that produced the challenge effect were staged between the focal mouse and a mildly sedated mouse that could not fight
C. The challenge effect occurred only after mice had observed other mice fighting for terriitory
D*. a and b both
E. b and c both
A. males of equal size will employ a manus push to gain dominance but will rarely escalate to more dangerous behaviors like bitiing
B. Males will mate with multiple females of different sizes because fathering offspring with multiple mothers ensures genetic diversty in the offspring
C*. The larger the female, the longer the males fought each other to gain access to her
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
Betsy the ant has found a tasty dead bug and wants to haul it back to her colony, but it is just barely too heavy for her to carry by herself. Her body can produce a small amount of pheromone for communicating with recruits so she shouldn't waste it. In addition, it is harmful to the colony to recruit too many recruits. Natural selection has selected for the most efficient way for Betsy to use a pheromone for this kind of communication. What is it?
A. The pheromone should be volatile and Betsy should spray it into the air near the prey to attract recruits from a distance
B. The pheromone should be volatile and Betsy should lay down a trail between the prey and the colony to attract any recruits that cross the trail
C. The pheromone should be nonvolatile and Betsy should lay down a trail between the prey and her colony to attract any recruits that cross the trail
D.* The pheromone should be a touch pheromone and Betsy should use it to recruit a single individual helper
Researchers allow bees to feed from a feeder located 500 meters due south of the hive. They then set up one new feeder due south of the hive and then place feeders in several other directions from the hive as well, but all are now 450 meters from the hive. They remove the original feeder. Next, they determine which feeders that new bees from the hive now visit. What information can they learn from this experiment alone?
A. is evidence that lizards are territorial in the shade so competition keeps numbers down
B. is evidence that sunshine improves the metabolism of lizards
C*. is a correlation between the number of lizards and the degree of shade in an area
D. tells us that sunshine causes this lizard distribution because lizards are attracted to the warmth
E. both A and C
F. Both B and D
In a galaxy far, far away, you have found a blue snake with three different phenotypes. The Duke blue snakes are successful hunters because their dark coloration allows them to hide in the shadows and leap out at prey unexpectedly. The Carolina Blue snakes are so dazzlingly pretty that their prey become stunned and are easy to catch. Snakes of the in-between shade of blue are neither dark enough nor pretty enough to catch prey so don't do very well. What type of selection would be expected here?
A. The entire process gull chicks use to beg for food is a fixed action pattern
B. Gull chicks must learn the entire begging process by trial and error
C. Gull chicks must wait until they are a week old before they can beg properly, because their muscles must mature first
D. 1 and 3 both
E*. None of the above
A*. While the female was inside her burrow, place a ring of strawberry-scented space cones around it. After she leaves, remove the strawberry cones and replaced them with peppermint cones to see if she still recognizes the burrow
B. While the female was inside her burrow, place a ring of space cones around the burrow. After she leaves, move the cones to a different location to see if she would use the ring of cones to locate her burrow
C. While the female was inside her burrow, place a ring of space cones and strawberry-scented plates around the burrow. After she leaves, move the scented plates to one location and the pine cones to another location and noted whether she investigates the site of the plates or the site of the cones
D. any of the three scenarios would show that scent is not the preferred cue used by the wasps
E*. both a and c would work
House finch males vary in color from yellowish-orange to vivid red. In one experiment, females were shown to prefer red males over the yellowish ones. Researchers then did an additional experiment in which they died the feathers of red males to make them duller or died the feathers of yellowish males to make them redder and then compared female responses to the males. What was the point of this second study?A. The feather-dying experiment looked at whether males would change their behavior if they thought they were more attractive to females B. The first study showed that the red color was the source of the female preference while the second one investigated how red was red enough to trigger female preference Feedback: first study left open the possibility that red was NOT the source of the female preference; that is why the second study is needed. C*. The initial study demonstrated a correlation between redness of the male and female preference, while the second study looked at causation between color and preference D. The first study showed the female preference while the second study looked to see whether the redness was sexually selected for male-male interactions in competing for femaleA honeybee queen is genetically UUrr and is crossed with a male from a completely hygienic hive. Offspring from this cross willA. Show uncapping, but not removal behavior B.* Show removal, but not uncapping behavior C. Neither uncap nor remove D. Both uncap and removeTwo groups of mice were tested in the hidden platform test. Group A mice learned the location of the hidden platform significantly more quickly than Group B mice. Given what we know about the NMDA receptors, which of the following could explain these data?A. The Group A mice are 'knock-in' mice with extra copies of the NMDA gene AND the group B mice are wild-type controls. B. The Group A mice are wild-type controls AND the Group B mice are 'knock-out' mice without NMDA receptors. C. The Group A mice are 'knock-in' mice with extra copies of the NMDA gene AND the Group B mice are 'knock-out' mice without NMDA receptors. D*. All of the above E. 1 and 2 onlyThe Rover/Sitter story illustrates that environment can interact with genetics to produce the phenotype. A genetic difference between Rovers and Sitters is known: they have different alleles of the for gene. Which of the following demonstrate an environmental effect on the behavior of Rover/Sitter fruit flies?A. With food spread evenly in a Petri dish or in clumps, Rover larvae move around more than Sitter larvae B*. When adult, Sitter flies are just as likely to leave a food source as adult Rover flies are, but, after previous food deprivation, Rovers are far less likely than Sitters to leave a food source C. The for gene has a role in lipid and carbohydrate storage D. all of the above E. a and b onlyIn experiments with European toads, various objects were passed across the retinal receptive field of a ganglion cell and the electrical activity of the optic tectum was recorded. The results indicate thatA. A small, moving square prevents action potentials in the optic tectum B. A moving, horizontal bar evokes more activity than a bar of the same dimensions turned vertically C. The ganglion cell acts as a stimulus filter and tunes the toad to stimuli that promote detection of worms D. All of the above E*. b and c bothWhich of the following conditions would produce rats that performed lordosis behavior when in mating situations?A. The rat is a female, given testosterone on day 17 of after birth and then given testosterone again as an adult B. The rat is a female given testosterone implants in first five days after birth and then given testosterone again as an adult C. The rat is a male, castrated on day 1 after birth, given testosterone implants at day 15 as a juvenile, and then given testosterone again as an adult D*. a and c both E. None of the aboveTiger salamander larvae have two forms: some can be cannibals and others just insect eaters. What factors promote development of the cannibal form?A. The salamander is larger than average B. There are many other salamanders in the pond C. The salamander is unrelated to most of the other salamanders in the pond D*. All of the above E. b and c onlyWhile searching for food, a Paramecium bumps into a twig and cannot make forward progress. How does it deal with this obstacle?A. A ring of photoreceptors perceive the long shape of the twig because of the arrangement of inhibitory and excitatory photoreceptors B. Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels open after the Parameciam hits the twig. The influx of Ca2+ causes the muscles that control swimming to change direction C*. The stretch of the membrane causes Ca2+ to enter the Paramecium and trigger a wave of ciliary reversal followed by a wave of recovery D. Stretch-sensitive Ca2+ channels open, causing the Paramecium to generate action potentials that lead to the Paramecium spinning into a new directionFeedback: no action potentials because Paramecium is not a nerve cell E. a and d F. b and c G*. c and dThe sea slug, Tritonia, swims to escape predators by alternating dorsal and ventral flexions. Three nerve cells (C2, DSI, and VSI) work together to produce this repeated motion. Which of the following is true about this system?A*. If synapses between the DSI and C2 cells stopped functioning, the animal would only perform a single dorsal flexion B. The three cells together form a command center that controls the behavior and depends on sensory feedback of body position C. The only role of the VSI is to inhibit the DSI during ventral flexion D. The C2 cell is the command cell that alternately triggers the DSI and VSI to cause flexion E. The DSI cell simultaneously excites the C2 cell and the VSI, making each more likely to fire action potentialsA population of Trinidadian guppies had evolved under conditions of high predation pressure. One day a predator-specific virus wiped out all the predators in the pond. After thirty years with few if any predators, the population had changed. The population now showedA. More schooling behavior since bigger schools no longer attracted predators B*. Fewer, larger offspring since the fish could now expect the survival rate of their offspring would be higher C. More distant predator-inspection behavior because it wasn't necessary to check out the predators so thoroughly D. All of the above E. None of the aboveA population of digger wasps was at equilibrium with 65% diggers and 35% borrowers. By chance, a brief flood killed many of the diggers so that the population was 35% diggers and 65% borrowers. At that point in time,A*. Diggers have higher fitness than borrowers B. Borrowers have higher fitness since they spend less energy digging a burrow C. Diggers and borrowers have equal fitness because it is a mixed ESS D. a and c both E. b and c bothBob, a Cassin's Finch, lived with his mate, Fiona, on a nice comfortable territory. Ray, a different male Cassin's Finch, lived on a nice, comfortable territory out of earshot of Bob's. At the start of our story, Ray had not yet found a mate, although he was just as handsome a fellow as Bob. Now at this time, some dastardly researchers came along, captured the fair Fiona, and released her into Ray's territory. Which of the following would you expect to happen next?A. Upon discovering Fiona's absence, Bob begins singing much longer than normal courting males do in an effort to lure Fiona back B. Finding herself in a new place, Fiona listens to Ray and then flies back to Bob and listens to him. She will eventually choose which ever of the two has the most complex song. C. Upon discovering Fiona's arrival, Ray will stop singing much at all since he now has a female on his territory. D*. all of the above E. a and cThe graph at right shows a sonogram of a strawberry finch song and that of a white-crowned sparrow that is also singing a strawberry finch song. What circumstances could reasonably have led to the WCS singing the finch song?A. The WCS was living with the strawberry finch during the matching phase of song development B. The WCS is a transgenic knockdown of FoxP2 so no longer has an own-species bias C. The WCS heard recordings of a strawberry finch while being raised by its own parents D. All of the above E*. None of the aboveIn an experiment, younger hand-reared cowbirds were found to sing a "sexier" song than younger cowbirds that experienced a natural upbringing. Why did this happen?A. Hand-reared cowbirds were exposed to the songs of other cowbirds more often than normal (through a speaker) B*. Hand-reared birds were denied visual cues from older cowbird males that inform the younger birds to decrease the "sexiness" of the songs C. Hand-reared birds were not exposed to the songs of other birds, which could potentially confuse birds in the wild D. The pressure of performing their songs in front of females is lifted in a hand-reared environment, which allows the hand-reared birds to sing with more confidence E. All of the above F. B and c onlyIn the study on salamander personality, what evidence indicates specifically that personality has a genetic component?A. The boldness level of individuals in the absence of a predator cue was correlated with boldness in the presence of a predator cue B. There was considerable variation in the boldness of different individuals as would be needed for natural selection to act on a trait C*. Siblings tended to be similar to each other in terms of levels of boldness D. a and c both E. b and c bothAquatic leeches have a diet of blood and switch between two states: hungry and satiated. In the hungry state, they are alerted by heat and vibration, and will swim towards the potential food source. In the satiated state, they ignore the stimuli that alerted them of a potential meal, and do not feed for about a year. Researchers hypothesize that serotonin is responsible for triggering the switch between the satiated state and the hungry state. Which manipulation listed below would show that natural sources of serotonin cause the switch between the hunger/satiated state of a leech?A. Bathe hungry and satiated leeches in serotonin. B*. Stimulate hungry and satiated leech brains to produce more serotonin C. Inhibit serotonin production in hungry and satiated leeches using a serotonin antagonist. D. Determine if the amount of serotonin in the brain correlates with feeding behaviorMrs. Vogel has recently acquired three pet starlings whose cages sit all in a row. First is Joey in his cage, then Stella, a female starling in her cage, and finally Eddie, another male starling. It is early spring and both Joey and Eddie are singing, but Mrs. Vogel notices that Stella is spending most of her time on the side of her cage next to Eddie. Based on lecture about the development and function of birdsong, what could explain this?A. Eddie has a long complex song. B. Eddie has a simple, short song. C. Joey is younger than Eddie and still in matching phase of song development D*. Both a and c could be good explanations E. Both b and c could be good explanationsYou design an experiment that supplements newly-hatched female zebra finches with hormones. You have three groups of birds: Group A: estrogen-supplemented females that were raised with full contact with parent finches, Group B: testosterone -supplemented females that were raised with full contact with parent finches, and Group C: estrogen-supplemented females that were raised in isolation but with a speaker that played recordings of zebra finch songs after they were old enough to start singing. When the females reach adulthood, you provide them with testosterone. How will the females respond?A. All three groups will be able to sing male-like songs as adults because they all have masculinized brains B. Group A and Group C will be able to sing male-like songs as adults because they have masculinized brains and had a chance to learn the song C*. Only Group A will be able to sing male-like songs as adults because this is the only group with a masculinized brain that had the opportunity to learn what song they should sing D. Only Group B will sing male-like songs as adults because this is the only group with a masculinized brain that had the opportunity to learn what song they should singHow do we know that testosterone is responsible for eliciting dewlaps displays in the adult Carolina anole lizard?A*. Removal of testosterone causes adult males to stop displaying, but adding back the hormone restores the behavior B. Removing testosterone in the adult will cause reorganization of the brain, leading to female-specific behavior, but adding the testosterone back during the critical period restores male-specific behavior C. Addition of testosterone in the adult triggers growth of neurons involved in dewlap displays, while the loss of testosterone causes the neurons to regress D. All of the above E. b and c bothIn work on monogamy and polygyny in voles, researchers performed a cross-fostering experiment. Which of the following are correct statements about the experiment?A. Adult male meadow voles were housed with female prairie voles with the result that the adult males showed increased huddling behavior with her babies B. Adult meadow voles were crossed with adult prairie voles. The resulting hybrid offspring showed intermediate behavior in terms of caring for offspring C. Baby meadow voles were placed in the nests of prairie voles and as adults attempted to crossbreed with prairie voles instead of their own species D*. Baby meadow voles were placed in the nests of prairie voles and as adults showed more nurturing and monogamous behaviors than normal for meadow volesIn studying monogamy and polygyny in voles, researchers demonstrated a role for vasopressin in the development of the behavior used by the voles. Which of the following are true about this research?A. In prairie vole males, repeated matings with the same female triggers a sense of reward that males associate with that female B. A transgenic strain of meadow voles had higher expression of the vasopressin receptor in the ventral pallidum of the brain. Males from this transgenic strain showed increased tendencies to huddle with females. C. If extra vasopressin receptors are transgenically expressed in the ventral pallidum of the brain, then prairie voles switch from being monogamous to polygynous D. Because vasopressin is a hormone, the effect on monogamy or polygyny is environmental, not genetic. E. all of the above are true F*. a and b bothCarlos the Fiddler Crab was out waving his fiddler claw to attract some girls when a large sea gull swooped down and picked him up. Carlos tussled with the bird and somehow managed to climb on to the gull's back where he held on for dear life. The sea gull, freaked out by having a crab on his back, flew madly to a completely different beach 50 miles away where he finally shook Carlos off. Carlos landed on a mud flat that he'd never been on before, but quickly dug a new burrow and then began looking around for food. To his horror, he had to make a crazy run for his burrow because the tide was rolling in right then. Why didn't Carlos expect the incoming tide?A. Carlos has a sun compass that he used to tell time; in this new location his sun compass didn't work B. Carlos is showing a free-running tidal rhythm C*. Carlos tidal rhythm is entrained to the wrong beach D. a and b both E. b and c bothThe graph at right shows results from a behavioral test on mallard ducklings in which newly hatched birds were captured from the nest in the wild and presented with a duck model on wheels. The y-axis represents the percentage of ducklings that followed the model when it was pulled along. The x-axis lists the type of sound presented to the ducklings when shown the model. Based on these data alone, we can conclude thatA. Mallard ducklings innately follow an object making mallard sounds B*. Most mallard ducklings do not follow an object that is not associated with sound C. Mallard ducklings have learned their preference for mallard sounds D. a and b only Feedback: Cannot be a) because no info on it being innate E. b and c onlyOn Planet X, sea puffs are marine animals that reproduce by swimming to the surface and releasing a cloud of eggs or sperm into the air. They live many years and most sea puffs reproduce every year. They do so, however, only in the three months following the start of spring, one hour after sunset on each day. Based on what you know about similar happenings on earth, which of the following statements are likely to be true?A. The sea puff behavior reflects a need to coordinate with other members of the species B. Sea puffs have a lunar rhythm C. Sea puffs have a circadian rhythm D. All of the above E*. a and c onlyEvidence that ptarmigan mothers teach their chicks what kind of food to eat includes:A. During one study, when a chick picked up a nonfood item, the mother took it away 20 out of 25 times B. During one study, when a chick picked up a food item, the mother bobbed her head whenever the mother saw the chick do so. C*. when the mother finds a good food item, she makes a specific call. The more often she makes the call, the more likely it is that the chick will choose that kind of food D. Both a and b E. none of the aboveBonnie and Clyde are two catfish competing in the annual guppy-hunting contest. Before Bonnie has her turn, Clyde slips a drug into her beer that knocks out external taste receptors. Bonnie is also a cheater, however, and, before Clyde's turn, she slips a drug into his beer that knocks out lateral line function. Which of the results below are most likely?A*. Bonnie will not be able to sense the water-borne chemicals associated with guppies B. Clyde will not be able to sense the water-borne chemicals associated with guppies C. Clyde will use wake-following more successfully than Bonnie to capture prey D. Neither Clyde nor Bonnie will be able to use wake-following to capture prey E. Clyde will catch more guppies than Bonnie will in the same amount of time.Bumblebees are trained to feed in a high variance environment in which some artificial food patches contain only 1 out of 12 'flowers' with sugar water and others contain 9 out of 12 flowers with sugar water. The bees are then released into a test area and their tendency to leave the patch is measured. The results show thatA. They check all 12 flowers in the patch because they know that some patches have high rewards B*. They tend to stay in the patch after they have found 2 or more 'flowers' because they know that there will be several more rewards in the patch C. They leave the patches after finding 4 or 5 'flowers' - the average number of rewards per patch D. Their tendency to stay in the patch depends on the travel time between patches E. They can tell by smell how many rewards are in a patch and seek out the patches with the strongest smellYou are relaxing at your South Pacific vacation home when you notice a huge number of fruit bats feeding in three nearby fruit trees of different sizes. The number of fruits on the trees varies with the volume of the crown of the tree (that is, the upper part of the tree that contains branches and leaves). The largest tree has 168 fruits on it, the middle-sized one has 84, and the small one has 42. Thinking back to your animal behavior class, you guess that the bats will have the same GUD per tree. Eventually the bats do leave and you go out and find you were right. What did you observe?A. The same number of fruits now remained on each tree B*. The number of fruits per cubic foot of crown was now the same on each tree C. All of the fruit from the largest tree had been eaten, but most of the fruit remained on the other two trees D. The density of fruit remaining on the tree was highest for the largest tree, medium for the medium tree, and smallest for the smallest tree.Hannah Hawk lives in an area with four types of prey and needs to decide what would be the most energetically profitable diet to eat. The search time for all four types of prey is the same so she only considers energy and handling time. Which of the diets below should she choose.A. A diet consisting of snakes will yield an average of 12kJ of energy per hunt and will take an average of 15 mins of handling time B. A diet consisting of mice will yield an average of 4kJ of energy per hunt and will take an average of 6 mins to find C*. A diet consisting of fish will yield an average of 12kJ of energy per hunt and will take an average of 3 mins of handling time D. A diet consisting of rabbits will yield an average of 16kJ of energy per hunt and will take an average of 20 mins of handling time E. A and D are most likely to be observed since they have the same profitability F. All the diets are equally good since search time is the sameIn the study on kingsnakes and coral snakes, researchers concluded that kingsnakes were protected by Batesian mimicry. Which of the following is true about this study?A. Researchers used predation on the cryptic brown snake models as a measure of how many predators were in the area B. researchers placed kingsnake and coral snake models in the same areas to see which got predated on most C. In areas where cryptic brown snake models were attacked more than the kingsnake models, there were usually native coral snakes D. All of the abo e E*. a and c onlyWhen trying to break up a whelk, Northwestern crows typically fly up to about 5 m and then drop the whelk on rocks. Which of the following is/are true about this situation? SELECT ALL THAT ARE TRUEA*. Experiments show that large whelks dropped from higher heights are not likely to break any more easily, but large whelks dropped from lower heights are less likely to break B*. Evidence suggests that the height of the drop is optimal C. If there are large, medium and small whelks to choose from, the crows will drop the large ones first, then when they've reached the giving-up density, they will switch to the medium ones until they again reach the giiving-up density, and then they will switch to the small ones, D. Medium-sized whelks are the optimal size for crows to use because of the balance of cost (not too heavy) and benefits (big enough to provide large amounts of calories). E*. Small whelks require many more drops at 5 m than large whelks do, which suggests why small whelks are not foraged on by northwestern crowsResearchers designed a box that had slots containing artificial moths in which the wings popped wide when a bird removed the 'moth' from the box. Based on lecture, what did this experiment show?A*. The colorful, patterned hindwings of an otherwise cryptic moth could startle a predator B. A cryptic moth was protected by being difficult to see C. Predators can learn to find cryptic prey using search images D. a and b both E. b and c bothA pterodactyl comes upon a herd of 15 dinosaurs and successfully captures one reptile. The next day, the pterodactyl encounters a herd of 85 dinosaurs and is unable to capture any despite the larger number of prey. Which of the following experimental results would allow one to conclude that the vigilance effect specifically had a role in the pterodactyl's failure?A. The risk to any one individual was significantly higher in the smaller herd than the larger herd B. After encountering the larger herd, the pterodactyl chased first one dino, then switched to another, and then even another and was unable to catch any of them. C*. The larger flock of dinosaurs responded to the oncoming pterodactyl when the predator was 40 m away, whereas the smaller herd responded when the pterodactyl was only 4 m away D. All of the above E. a and c bothA mutant strain of cheetah does not recognize that stotting behavior means the gazelle has spotted the cheetah. How would you expect the graphs belowto change for this mutant strain (compared to normal cheetahs)?A. For the mutant cheetah, the left circle would change to look like the right circle. B*. When gazelles stot, mutant cheetahs would launch more failed chases than normal cheetahs C. Mutant cheetahs would be more successful when gazelles stot (they would kill more gazelles) because the mutants would not be confused by the stotting D. The mutant cheetahs would be more likely to abandon hunts than normal cheetahs would E. The graphs would not change because the effect of stotting depends on the gazelle's actions, not the cheetah's actionsThe key fact specifically indicating that the indigo bunting (a species of bird) uses a star compass is:A. In a planetarium, clockshifted indigo buntings will attempt to migrate in an incorrect direction B*. In a planetarium in the fall, buntings attempt to move north under a night sky rotated by 180°, but will go south under a normal sky C. Indigo buntings migrate at night so cannot use a sun compass; so they must use a star compass D. all of the above E. b and cWhich finding specifically tells us that loggerhead turtles can detect the intensity of a magnetic field?A. When the magnetic field direction around an east-going turtle is reversed, the turtle swims west B. When intensity and inclination were varied to mimic a site near Portugal, the turtles swam south C. When turtles first enter the ocean along the Atlantic coast of Florida, they swim east D*. When two groups of turtles were presented with different intensities and all other parameters were held constant, the average direction of each group was different. E. When turtles were in a magnetic field where North was rotated 60 degrees clockwise, the turtles swam to the north east.Which of the following demonstrate that turtles can use positional information from the Earth's magnetic field?A*. Coastal juveniles can be made to swim south when exposed to a magnetic field that lies geographically north of home B. When the magnetic field is reversed, turtles swim the opposite direction than when in the normal field C. When turtles crawl a certain direction on the ground, they will swim in that same direction when placed in water D. All of the above E. A and C bothResearchers have identified two populations of blackcaps - small songbirds that breed in Germany, One population winters in Britain, and the other in Spain. Based on lecture, which of the following statements are true about this example?A. Adults that wintered the year before in Britain will attempt to migrate towards Britain at the next fall migration B. The offspring of Britain-wintering adults attempt to migrate towards Britain at the time of their first fall migration while the offspring of Spain-wintering adults attempt to migrate towards Spain at the time of their first migration C. The example illustrates how migration can have a genetic component D*. All of the above E. a and b onlyIn the experiment analyzing the effect of proximity to family on the natal dispersal of voles, they found that more males than females were dispersing. Based on lecture, what was the likely explanation for this result?A. Females run more slowly than males so have a higher risk of predation when they travel in the non grassy areas. As a result, only the faster males dispersed B. The female voles were taking care of their young and therefore did not disperse C*. When only one sex disperses then the chances of inbreeding are reduced D. Female voles stay with their parents longer because they have to learn nurturing skills such as huddling from their parentsWhat is the benefit of having more fat content for male damselflies?A*. Higher fat content is correlated with winning a territory B. The fat makes them heavier to they can fight intruders better C. The fat gives them more energy for making gametes, so they can have more offspring. D. All of the above E. a and bOn Planet SwampGas, there are two ponds that space frogs use. Round Pond is the better habitat - it is shallow and warm with lots of insects to eat. Deep Pond is shaded, cooler, and has fewer insects for space frogs to eat. You also know that space frogs can move freely between the ponds and are very sensitive to overcrowding because they compete for the insect food in the pond. Because space frogs are a local delicacy, the human residents nearby have data showing how many frogs they've caught in each pond over the last 20 years. It turns out that there is a linear relationship between the density of frogs in Round Pond and that in Deep Pond. Then, shocker, Round Pond is invaded by an AstroSnake which begins dining on Space Frogs. You continue to monitor the density of frog populations in the two ponds, and now find that there is a new linear relationship between the density of frogs in Round Pond and that in Deep Pond. Given what you know about habitat selection, what is likely true about this situation?A. Space Frogs find their ponds by conspecific cuing B. After the Astrosnake arrived, the habitat quality of Round Pond decreased C. Both before after the arrival of the snake, it appears that the frogs are distributing themselves between the ponds in the manner of the Ideal Free Distribution model D. all of the above E*. b and c bothPetula Poplar Aphid moves onto a large poplar leaf and begins making a gall at the base of the leaf. She is just about to seal herself inside the layers of leaf tissue when she notices that Pamela Poplar Aphid has landed on her leaf. What does she do?A. Continues to move into her gall because there is no loss to Petula if Pamela moves in, too. B. Continues to move into her gall because no leaf can support two galls at a time so Pamela will give up when she sees Petula is already there C*. Attempts to push Pamela off the leaf because the presence of a second aphid will reduce the resources she can gather for her own offspring so her fitness will go down D. Attempts to push Pamela off the leaf because no poplar leaf can support more than one gall at a time and Petula's gall could failOn Planet Zortron, you have been studying how male Crested Dohickeys (flying birdlike creatures that sing) choose a place to live. You note these facts: male Dohickeys set up individual breeding territories; if you play the songs of Dohickeys in a particular area, you tend to attract more male Dohickeys to that area; having an increased number of Dohickeys in a region does not improve breeding success of individuals. Based on this, you conclude that Dohickeys are likely choosing a territory based onA. the Allee effect B. the Ideal Free Distribution model C*. Conspecific Cueing D. both a and b E. both b and cEileen and Lucille are two American Redstarts that migrated to Costa Rica for the winter. Eileen is pretty intense and expends a lot of energy in defending a winter territory in a wetlands habitat. Lucile is more laidback and decides to spend less energy defending her territory with the result that Lucille accepts a territory in a dry scrub neighborhood. Their different decisions lead to different reproductive success the next summer. Based on lecture, what is true about this example?A*. Eileen is likely to have higher reproductive output the next summer because her winter territory was of higher quality B. Lucille is likely to have higher reproductive output the next summer because her winter territory was of higher quality C. Lucille is likely to have higher reproductive output the next summer because she spent less energy defending her territory in the winter D. Quality of the territory and Energy spent defending the territory are factors that balance out for Redstarts so Eileen and Lucille will have equal reproductive successKittiwakes are seagulls that nest each year on cliff-faces in large colonies. Based on lecture, what evidence suggests that kittiwakes use public information to help select a nest site?A. Kittiwakes are attracted to the sounds of other nesting kittiwakes in order to identify a good nest site B*. When a kittiwake suffers a failed nest, then the next year it wiil be more likely to seek out a new nest site if the nests of neighbors also failed versus if the neighbors nested successfully C. Kittiwakes watch other individuals to see if they have successfully found food D. Kittiwakes will show breeding dispersal when they successfully raise eggs so that they avoid inbreeding E. When a kittiwake suffers a failed nest, it will show ideal free distribution behavior so that they can try new habitatsRed-spotted newts migrate between aquatic and terrestrial habitats but not all newts migrate. Based on lecture, which of the following are true?A. When population density is high, newts are less likely to migrate from the ponds to the forests because fitness increases with density. B. When population density is low, females are more likely to migrate than males C. When more males than females were placed in enclosures that included both aquatic and terrestrial habitat, males were more like to migrate to avoid inbreeding. D. A high population density is associated with more competition for food and may explain why many newts choose to migrate under those conditions. E. a and c both F*. b and d both