Only $35.99/year

AP World Guided Reading Questions

Terms in this set (60)

Both Korea and Vietnam achieved political independence while participating fully in the tribute system as vassal states. Japan was never conquered by the Chinese but did participate for some of its history in the tribute system as a vassal state.
The cultural elite of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan borrowed heavily from China—Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, administrative techniques, the examination system, artistic and literary styles— even as their own cultures remained distinct.
Both Korea and Vietnam experienced some colonization by ethnic Chinese settlers.
Unlike Korea or Japan, the cultural heartland of Vietnam was fully incorporated into the Chinese state for over a thousand years, far longer than corresponding parts of Korea. This political dominance led to cultural changes in Vietnam, such as the adoption of Chinese-style irrigated agriculture, the education of the Vietnamese elite in Confucian-based schools and their inclusion in the local bureaucracy, Chinese replacing the local language in official business, and the adoption of Chinese clothing and hairstyles.
Unlike Korea or Vietnam, Japan was physically separated from China, and thus its adoption of elements of Chinese civilization from the seventh to the ninth centuries was wholly voluntary. The high point of that cultural borrowing occurred when the first Japanese state emerged and deliberately sought to transform Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state on the Chinese model. In doing so, Japan voluntarily embraced, among other things, a Chinese style emperor, Buddhism, Confucianism, Chinese court and governmental structures, and the Chinese calendar. But because the adoptions were voluntary, the Japanese could be selective. By the tenth century, Japan's tribute missions to China stopped. In the long run, Japanese political, religious, literary, and artistic cultures evolved in distinctive ways despite much borrowing from China. Korea, Vietnam, and Japan resisted some Chinese cultural influences. Korea and Vietnam resisted militarily Chinese political domination.
Buddhism appealed to Indian merchants, who preferred its universal message to that of a Brahmin-dominated Hinduism that gave more importance to the higher castes.
Many people in cities along the Silk Roads saw Buddhism as an important link to the wealth of India, which resulted in many voluntary conversions.
Well-to-do Buddhist merchants built monasteries and supported monks to earn religious merit. These monasteries provided places of rest and resupply for merchants making the trek across Central Asia.
Buddhism progressed only slowly among pastoral peoples of Central Asia. It had its greatest success when pastoralists engaged in long-distance trade or came to rule settled peoples.
In China, Buddhism was for many centuries a religion of foreign merchants or foreign rulers. Only slowly did it become popular among the Chinese themselves.
As it spread, Buddhism changed, making it more appealing to local populations. In particular, the Mahayana form of Buddhism with its emphasis on compassion and the possibility of earning spiritual merit made it more appealing than the teachings of the original Buddha. Buddhist monasteries became more involved in secular affairs, and sculptures and murals depicted a more wealthy and worldly style of living, which likely gave it a broader appeal along the commercial routes.
As it spread, Buddhism picked up elements of other cultures, including Greek and Roman influences, and the gods of many peoples along the Silk Roads were incorporated into Buddhist practice as bodhisattvas.
European empire building caused the demographic collapse of Native American societies.
Combinations of indigenous, European, and African people created entirely new societies in the Americas.
Large-scale ectanges of plants and animals transformed the crops and animals raised both in the Americas and in the Eastern Hemisphere. This was the largest and most consequential exchange of plants and animals to this point in human history, and it remade the biological environment of the planet.
The silver mines of Mexico and Peru fueled both transatlantic and transpacific commerce.
The need for plantation workers and the sugar and cotton trade created a lasting link among Africa, Europe, and the Americas, while scattering peoples of African origins throughout the Western hemisphere.
The "Columbian exchange" produced an interacting Atlantic world connecting four continents.
New information flooded into Europe, shaking up conventional understandings of the world and contributing to a revolutionary new way of thinking known as the Scientific Revolution.
Profits from colonial trade provided one of the foundations on which Europe's Industrial revolution was built.
Colonial empires provided outlets for the rapidly growing population of European societies and represented an enormous extension of European civilization.
Colonial empires of the Americas facilitated a changing global balance of power, which now thrust the previously marginal Western Europeans into an increasingly central and commanding role on the world stage.
The Portuguese sought to set up a trading post empire that controlled the trade routes of the Indian Ocean. They sought to do so through conquest and coercion rather than by economic competition. They sought to require all merchant vessels to purchase a trading pass and pay duties on their cargoes and partially blocked the Red Sea route to the Mediterranean to monopolize the route around Africa to Europe.
The Spanish sought to establish colonial rule over the Philippines Islands because of their proximity to China and the Spice Islands , the lack of a central ruler in the archipelago, and the absence of competing claims. In doing so, they drew on their experience in the Americas, converting most of the population to Chritianity, ruling over the island directly, and setting up large, landed estates owned by Spanish settlers.
Like the Portuguese, the Dutch and British sought to compete for the spice trade in the Indian Ocean. They organized their ventures through private trading companies, which were able to raise money and share risks among a substantial number of merchant investors. These trading companies obtained government charters granting them trading monopolies, the power to make war, and the right to govern conquered peoples. They established their own parallel and competing trade post empires; the Dutch practiced "trade by warfare," violently seizing control of some of the spice Islands, while the British set up trading centers in India by securing the support of the Mughal Empire or of local authorities.
Political effects: Silver allowed Spain to conquer a large part of the Americas and politically dominate Europe for almost a century. The Tokugawa shoguns used the profits from silver to defeat their rival warlords and politically unify Japan.
Economic effects: the Spanish economy was very restrictive, which prevented economic growth even with the influx of silver. Price increases were largely inflationary. When the price of silver dropped in value, the Spanish economy did not fare well, resulting in Spain's loss of dominance in Europe. The Tokugawa shoguns allied themselves with the domestic merchant class to develop a market-based economy and to invest in agriculture and industry.
Social effects: the inflation that recurred as a result of Spain's economic mistakes resulted in high prices, impoverishment, and uprisings against the crown across Europe. When combined with efforts to curb population growth and preserve Japan's natural resources, the shoguns' economic policies led to a flourishing, highly commercialized society that laid the foundations for the country's remarkable Industrial Revolution centuries later.
Silver in China, unlike Japan and Spain, deepened the already substantial commercialization of the Chinese economy, forcing more and more people to be integrated into it, unlike the select few in Spain and the small merchant class in Japan. Because silver was needed to pay taxes and something had to be sold to acquire it, the Chinese economy became regionally specialized. As in Japan, the silver boom in China led to deforestation. But unlike Japan, no conservation effort was carried out, scarring the Chinese countryside.
The fur trade did bring some benefits, including the trade of pelts for goods of real value. It enhanced influence and authority for some Native American leaders. It ensured the protection of Native American involved in the fur trade, at least for a time, from the kind of extermination, enslavement, or displacement that was the fate of some natives peoples elsewhere in the Americas. But the fur trade also had a negative impact, such as exposing Native AMericas to European diseases and generating warfare beyond anything previously known. It left Native Americans dependent on European goods without a corresponding ability to manufacture the goods themselves. It brought alcohol into Indian societies, often with deeply destructive effects.
Because of the desire for lucrative furs, Native American societies became more competitive with each other, leading to increased warfare between tribes. The environment was desecrated, harming Native Americans' living spaces and hunting lands. European diseases like smallpox and influenza spread more rapidly and decimated populations. Native Americans became engaged in European wars, being forced to choose sides in conflicts that began over dynastic successions an ocean away. Somewhat positively, the Native Americans were better integrated into the world economy and found markets for products like ginseng root through European middlemen, while also increasing their use of iron tools. Moreover, their vital role as intermediaries protected them from being enslaved, as occurred to natives in Portuguese Brazil.
By 1700 or earlier the vast majority of Native Americans had been baptised and saw themselves in some respects as Christians. While earlier conquerors made no attempts to eradicate local deities and religious practices, Europeans claimed an exclusive religious truth and sought the utter destruction of local gods and everything associated with them, which at times led to aggressive, violent campaigns of "extirpation" and resistance from native peoples.
More common than outright attacks on Christianity, Native AMericans sought to reinterpret Christian practices within traditional frameworks and incorporate local elements into a new Christanity.
In the Andes, dancers in the Taki Onqoy movement might take the names of Christian saints; people might offer the blood of a llama to strengthen a village church; or believers might make a cloth covering for the Virgin Mary and a shirt for an image of a native huaca with the same material.
In Mexico, an immigrant Christinaity was assimilated into patterns of local cultures: parishes were organized largely around pre-colonial town or regions; churches were built on or near the sites of old temples; cofradias, church-based associations of laypeople, organized community processions and festivals and made provision for a proper funeral and burial for their members; Christian saints closely paralleled the functions of pre-colonial gods; and the fiscal, or leader of the church staff, was a native Christian of great local prestige, who carried on the traditions and role of earlier religious specialists. The Virgin of Guadalupe also neatly combined Mesoamerican and Spanish notions of Divine Motherhood.Throughout the colonial period and beyond many Mexican Christians also took part in rituals derived from the past, with little sense that this was incompatible with Christian practices. These practices sought spiritual assistance in those areas of everyday life not directly addressed by Christian rites, but they also showed signs of Christian influence.
In China, Christian missionaries downplayed their mission to convert and were at pains to be respectful of Chinese culture, pointing at parallels between Confucianism and Christianity rather than portraying Christianity as something new and foreign. Chinese conversions occurred primarily among those elite scholars who were interested in Western science and who were attracted by the personal lives of missionaries and by the moral certainty that Christanity offered. While their primary goal was elite conversions, missionaries also attracted a small following among members of the general population who were attracted by tales of miracles attributed to the Chrstian God. However, there was only limited acceptance of Christanity in China after it became apparent that conversion to Christianity required abandonment of many Chinese practices.
In the Americas, especially the Spanish possessions explored in this chapter, the Christian missionary message was more strident and less accommodating, which reflected the reality of European and political dominance. Missionaries sought to convert the whole population to the Christian faith, drawing on the political authority of Christian rulers and the disruption in Native American society occasioned by conquest, They were only partially successful, as local populations occasionally resisted their conversion effort openly but more often worked to blend Christian and indignous religious traditions and assimilate Christianity into patterns of local culture. Elsewhere in the Americas, African and Chrsitian traditions were blended in religions such as Vodou in Haiti, Santeria in Cuba, and Candomblé and Macumba in Brazil.