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Human Physiology Final
Terms in this set (42)
the body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment through a variety of orchestrated physiologic respoonses
what does maintaining homeostasis require?
variable, receptors, integrating center and effectors
what are the three mechanisms to restore homeostasis
1. get rid of excess of substance
2. produce something else that counter balances that excess
3. get rid of part of excess AND add to other side to counter balance
movement that occurs without any external energy being required
unassisted movement of a molecule directly through phospholipid bilayer of plasma membrane
what factors affect flux?
concentration gradient, partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient, thickness of the membrane and surface area
use helper molecule like a channel protein or a carrier protein
what kind of molecules do transmembrane proteins let pass through the membrane?
binding sites are subject to
affinity, specificity, saturation and competition
specificity of binding site determined by
spatial geometry as well as taking into consideration a range of chemical interactions
lock and key model
substrate and enzyme fit together perfectly
induced fit model
plasticity of binding site
transport maximum of protein happens when it hits saturatoin
attractive force a binding site has for a ligand
when does affinity increase
when more ligand is available and being bound
competition of ligands
ligands with similar chemical structure may compete for same binding site
primary active transport
directly utilizes ATP to move against concentration gradient
examples of primary active transport
Na-K pumps and Ca++ pumps
secondary active transport
does not directly utilize ATP, sodium gradient is created to power the transport of a molecule against its gradient
substance moves into cell with Na+
substance moves out of cell when Na+ moves in
passive movement of H2O across semi-permeable membrane due two different in solute concentration
what is the ultimate hydrophilic molecule that can still move across the cell membrane unrestricted?
what are the channels that water moves through called?
what does the van't hoff equation calculate?
what two variables affect osmotic pressure?
concentration of solute and reflection coefficient
number from 0 to 1, 0 meaning solute penetrates membrane, 1 meaning solute does not penetrate the membrane
the pressure necessary to prevent osmosis OR the tendency of a solution to cause osmosis
what separates plasma and interstitial fluid?
isotonic fluid has an osmolarity of what
how does water move in an isotonic solution
no net movement of water
how does water move in a hypotonic solution
water enters the cell and the cell swells
how does water move in a hypertonic solution
water leaves cell and cell shrinks
what three things should we consider when evaluating potential changes in fluid compartments?
identify the change in ECF, how will that change affect osmolarity, and where does water need to move to equilibrate this change?
a chemical messenger that activates a receptor
a chemical messenger that binds to a receptor and does NOT activate a receptor
part of a messenger that is not bound
what do free messengers do?
diffuse directly across membrane and binds to intracellular receptor
where does the messenger-receptor complex impact the DNA after moving into the nucleus?
hormone response element
how do you keep dynamic equilibrium in blood vessels?
every time a free messenger leaves the blood vessels, a previously bound messenger is released and becomes free
enzyme linked receptors
has a receptor on membrane linked to enzyme on inner part of membrane, kinase or enzyme acts on substrate to phosphorylate it and then brings about a response
channel linked receptor
fast channel/ionotropic channel,
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