Psych Exam #4: Terms and Definitions

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Terms in this set (146)
Pleasure Principletendency of the id to strive for immediate gratificationEgoThe partly conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates between the demands of the ID, Superego, and reality. Ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the ID's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.Reality Principletendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet.SuperegoThe partly part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscious) and future aspirations. Gained from society and upbringing.Psychosexual stagesthe childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.Oedipus Complexaccording to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father (phallic stage). The female equivalent is the Electra Complex.Identificationthe process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegosFixationin psychoanalytic theory, according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolvedDefense Mechanismsin psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting realityRepressionin psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories. Repression is what enables other defense mechanisms.RegressionRetreating to an earlier psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated.Reaction FormationSwitching unacceptable impulses to their opposites.Projectiondisguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to othersRationalizationoffering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actionsDisplacementShifting impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or personDenialrefusing to believe or even perceive painful realitiesFreudian SlipsAccidental insertions of impulses into conversationCollective UnconsciousCarl Jung concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species historyterror management theorya theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending deathThematic Apperception Test (TAT)a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenesProjective Testa personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamicsRorsarch ink blot testa projective test designed by Herman Rorscharch; Seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing how they interpret 10 inkblotsthird-force perspectiveMaslow & Rogers perspective that emphasized human potential for healthy personal growthheiarchy of needsMaslow's pyramid of needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs (food, water, shelter) that must first be satisfied before higher level safety and the psychological needs become active.self-actualizationthe motivation to fulfill one's potential; according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achievedself-transcendenceaccording to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the selfperson-centered perspectivepeople are basically good and endowed with self-actualizing tendencies; coined by Carl Rodgersunconditional positive regarda caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptanceself-conceptall our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"ideal selfone's perception of whom one should be or would like to belife story approachmethod of determining personality that utilizes interviews and intimate conversations instead of questionnaires.Trait TheoryA theory of personality that determines personality in terms of identifiable behavior patterns (traits). More focused on describing personality than determining how it is created. Coined by Gordon AllportTraita characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reportsFactor analysisa statistical procedure for examining specific behaviors which tap into "basic" traits. Coined by the Eysencks.Personality Inventoriesa questionnaire (often with true-false/agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traitsMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.Empirically Derived testa test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups (Questions are designed based on already observed differences between groups).Big Five Factors (Five-factor model)The five factors - openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism - that researchers define personalityMaturity PrincipleAs you age, Conscientiousness and agreeability rise, and neuroticism dropsperson-situation controversycritique of trait theory that points out that an inherent trait can promote varying, almost contradictory, forms of behavior depending on the situation.Social-Cognitive PerspectiveA view of behavior as influenced by the the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context. Proposed by Albert BanduraReciprocal DeterminismThe interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment. Proposed by Bandura.assessment center approachPersonality analysis by simulating realistic situations and observing responseSelfin contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. One of the most researched aspects of psychology as a whole; brought back into the limelight by humanistic psychology.Possible selvesVisions people have of future selves they could become, both good (ideal self) or bad.Spotlight effectoverestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders; the result of a self-focused perspectiveSelf-esteemOur feelings of high or low self worthSelf-efficacyour sense of self-competence and effectivenessDunning-Kruger Effectignorance of one's own incompetenceSelf-serving biasa readiness to perceive oneself favorablyGroup-serving biasA readiness to perceive one's group favorablyDefensive self-esteemSelf-esteem focused on maintaining itself, which makes failure and criticism seem threatening.Secure Self-Esteemself-esteem that is less contingent or effected by external evaluation. Creates an authentic pride rooted in actual achievement.Psychological Disordera syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behaviorSyndromeA collection of symptomsDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)American psychiatric association's widely-used system for classifying mental disorders; 5th editionPsychopathologyscientific study of mental disorders.Medical Modelthe concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.Biophysical ApproachMind and body are inseparable; negative emotions can cause physical illness and vice-versavulnerability-stress modelindividual dispositions combine with environmental stressors to increase or decrease the likelihood of developing a psychological disorder (influenced by the Biophysical Approach and Epigenetics)EpigeneticsLiterally means "in addition to" (epi) genetics; the study of the molecular mechanisms by which environments can influence genetic expression (without DNA change!!!).Spotlight effectoverestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders; the result of a self-focused perspectiveImmigrant paradoxImmigrants average a higher mental health than their USA-born ethnic counterpartsanxiety disorderspsychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxietygeneralized anxiety disorderan anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal (free-floating anxiety; not linked to a specific stressor)Panic disorderAn anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation; often followed by a worry of a possible next attackSpecific Phobiaan anxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of specific objects or situations that is excessive and unreasonableAgordphobiafear or avoidance of public situations from which escape may be difficultobsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both.posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, hypervigilance, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experiencesurvivor resiliencyability to recover after severe stressPost-traumatic growthpositive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crisessomatic symptom disorderA psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical causeillness anxiety disordera disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a diseaseEtiologythe study of or the the causes of diseasesmajor depressive disorderA mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms from the DSM-5 list, one of which must be either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure.persistent depressive disorderSimilar to major depressive disorder, but with milder symptoms that persist over a longer period of time.Bipolar disorders (formerly manic-depressive disorder)A group of disorders in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of maniaManiaa hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgement is commonBipolar cyclingthe switch between depression and maniaExplanatory stylehow people rationalize their failures (who/what/how they blame)ruminationcompulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causespsychotic disordersa group of psychological disorders marked by irrational ideas, distorted perceptions, and a loss of contact with realitySchizophreniaa psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expressionChronic (process) schizophreniaa form of schizophrenia in which symptoms usually appear by late adolescence or early adulthood. As people age, psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods shorten (full recovery is doubtful)Acute (reactive) schizophreniaa form of schizophrenia that can begin at any age, frequently occurs in response to a traumatic event, and from which recovery is much more likelyDelusionsfalse beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disordersflat affectstate of no apparent emotion or feelingimpaired theory of mindDifficulty reading other peoples' facial emotions and states of mindcatatoniainappropriate random motor behavior (can range from wild movement to remaining completely still for hours)dissociative disordersControversial, rare disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelingsdissociative fugue statea sudden loss of memory or change in identity, often in response to an overwhelmingly stressful situationDissociative identity disorder (DID)a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.Personality disordersinflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioningAntisocial personality disorderA personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. (Antisocial meaning socially harmful or ruthless)Emotional intelligencethe ability to understand, interpret, and perceive emotions.Anorexia Nervosaan eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight, and has an inaccurate self-perception.Bulimia nervosaAn eating disorder in which a person's binge-eating (usually of high-calorie foods) is followed by inappropriate weight-loss-promoting behaviors.Binge-eating disordersignificant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory behavior that marks bulimia nervosaDiathesisBiological pre-disposition to develop a disorderBehavior therapytherapy that applies learning principles (classic and operant conditioning) to the elimination of unwanted behaviorscounterconditioningbehavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning. Coined by O.H MowrerExposure therapiesbehavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoidsystematic desensitizationA type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.anxiety hierarchyconstructed by patient in which feared situations are arranged from least to most anxiety provoking; used to set sequence for therapyProgressive relaxationReleasing one muscle group after another until a state of comfortable, complete relaxation has been achieved.Virtual reality exposure therapya counterconditioning technique that treats anxiety by creative electronic simulations in which people can safely face their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speakingAdverse conditioningAssociates unpleasant state with unwanted behaviorToken economyan operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treatscognitive therapytherapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactionsCatastrophizingRelentless, overgeneralized, self-blaming behaviorstress inoculation trainingteaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situationsCognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)dialectal behavior therapyTherapy that attempts to make peace between two opposing forces: acceptance and change. (Newer variation of CBT)Psychotherapytreatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growthMeta-analysisa statistical procedure for analyzing the results of multiple studies to reach an overall conclusionComorbiditythe co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individualconfirmation biasa tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidenceevidence-based practiceclinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferencesTherapeutic alliancea bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problemBiomedical therapyprescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the person's physiology (Lifestyle changes count!)psychopharmacologythe study of the effects of drugs on mind and behaviorpsychosisa psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions (schizophrenia causes this!)Antipsychotic drugsdrugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorders; dampens response to irrelevant and blocks dopamineAntianxiety drugsdrugs used to control anxiety and agitation; depress central nervous systemAntidepressant drugsdrugs used to treat depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Most function by blocking serotonin reuptake.Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Antidepressants that increase serotonin in the system by blocking reuptakeMood-stabilizing drugsSelf-explanatory; Used to treat bipolar disorder (Most common drug is lithium)Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient. Results in slight memory loss.Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)Similar to ECT but with much less powerful of a shockTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activityDeep Brain Stimulation (DBS)Experimental activation of neurons that inhibit negative activityPsychosurgerysurgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behaviorLobotomya psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.Preventative mental healthpreventing psychological disorders by identifying and alleviating the conditions that cause themResiliencethe personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma