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Radiation Science Final Review
Terms in this set (72)
All of the following are TRUE of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, EXCEPT
High LET radiation always have more penetration than low LET radiations
A GM counter has a scale of 1-5 mR/hr. If a deflection of the meter reads 4.5 and the meter is set on the X0.1 setting what is the reading?
4.5 x 0.1
A patient is exposed to a dose of ionizing radiation during a chest CT. The combined tissue weighting factor for the chest is 0.014. The patient's effective dose from this scan is 7.5 mSv. What is the absorbed dose?
********* 546 mGy
A radiation beam of 180 mrem/hr is reduced to 22.5 mrem/hr by an attenuating material. The material is equal to _____ half layers?
A technologist is exposed to 2 mrem/hr while escorting a PET patient down the hallway. If the technologist is currently walking 18 inches from the patient, to what distance from the patient must the technologist move to reduce exposure to 0.5 mrem/hr?
Doubling distance reduces exposure by 1/4
A dose equivalent of 20 mSv is equal to
Which of the following scenarios would qualify as a medical event
patient dose differs from prescribed dose by more than 20% and patient receives an excess exposure of 5 rem TEDE
What is the primary source of death for individuals exposed to whole body absorbed doses of 1,000-10,000
Damage to GI tract and bone marrow
10^3 and 10^4
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding stochastic effects of ionizing radiation exposure?
Stochastic effects resulting from ionization exposure may include cancer and genetic effects
An occupational worker has received 14,000 mrem of exposure in 1 year on his/her eye dose dosimeter; which of the following course of action would be appropriate
Review ALARA standards to reduce exposure rates because they are close to exceeding their annual limits
1 mCi of which of the following would require a "Caution, Radioactive Materials" sign
A radioactive package arrives at 6am to NM department that opens at 7am. What time must this package be checked in by?
A radiology administrative assistant works part-time (20 hr week for 48 weeks a year). On average she receives an exposure rate of 0.8 mrem/hr while at work. Do they need to be monitored?
If a technologist is exposed to a source with a dose rate of 7.5 mrem/hr for a period of an hour and 45 minutes what is total dose?
7.5 mrem x 1.75 hours
What is equivalent dose equal to?
absorbed dose x biological effect of radiation type
The deleterious effects of exposure to ionizing radiation became clear how many years following Roentgen's discovery of x-rays
Which sign must be posted in an area where an individual could receive 4 mrem/hr at 90cm from a radiation source
Caution radiation area
(4)(90^2) = (x)(30^2)
On the label below "0.2" is equal to what? (the number is t the bottom of the label in the square box)
Max equivalent dose rate at 1 meter form the surface of the package
Why is the creation of bremsstrahlung radiation not a concern with Tc-99m in lead shielding
The path of gamma ray is unaffected by the charge of lead nuclei
What is NOT a parameter specified by the facilities RAM license?
Allowable patient volume per day
At 6am a technologist obtains 360 mCi Tc-99m from a generator. At 6pm while closing the department another technologist accidentally drops the vial and it breaks. Does this qualify as a major spill?
No, its under 100 mCi for Tc-99m to be classified as a major spill as it went through 2 half lifes
Most individual state governments in the US assume the authority of the NRC?
Which of the following equivalent dose rates at the surface of the package would require a Yellow 2
A technologist disposes of radioactive material that decayed in storage in 2021. Until what year must the records be kept?
An institutions bone scan protocol is 25 mCi Tc-99m. What doses would require approval from institutions authorized user prior to administration?
Anything over 20% variation from dose
20% of 25 is 5
Below 20 mCi or above 30 mCi
A technologist makes an entry into the wipe survey log on 11/5/21 until what day must they be retained
NMTs wear ring dosimeter badges in order to monitor ionization radiation exposure to the ___
What is a common wipe test trigger level for I-131 area
A dose equivalent of 20 mSv is equal to
An unrestricted area is one in which access is not limited by the licensee, and where anyone in the area must receive _____ in any one hour
less than 2 mrem
Which of the following represents 10% of the annual limit for the extremities of occupational workers
20 mCi dose of Tc-99m MDP results in a total body absorbed dose of approximately 0.25 rads. This value is equivalent to
All of the following statements are true regarding acute radiation syndrome(s) except
The threshold for induction of an acute radiation syndrome is unknown
The gross counts obtained for a wipe test swab are 4,250 cpm in a well counter with an efficiency of 38%. If the background is 205 cpm how much radiation is present in the swap? Would it pass the common wipe test level for contamination with Tc-99m
The annual dose limit for occupational workers includes both external and internal doses
A dedicated radiation safety committee is required for all institutions
Holding a broad scope of radioactive material (RAM) license
How do antioxidants help prevent damage to cells caused by ionizing radiation
Donating electrons to free radicals
What is the annual LDE exposure limit for occupational workers
Which of the following institutions are regulated directly by the NRC, even if physically located within an agreement state?
On the X0.1 scale this GM counter reading in an unrestricted area would require RSO notification? T or F [meter is on the 0.6 mR/hr
0.06 mR/hr - False
Which of the following describes an indirect effect of ionizing radiation exposure to a human cell
A hydroxyl free radical striking a strand of cellular DNA
An administrative assistant in a NM department sits 2 meters from a source with an intensity of 10 mrem/hr. In an effort to decrease his exposure the RSO relocated the assistant to 8 meters away from the source. What is the new exposure rate? Does this exceed the 10% annual limit whole body for occupational workerss? (assume 40 hr weeks for 48 weeks a year)
Yes as its 1200 mrem per year
A wipe sample obtained using a well counter must be recorded in dpm rather than cpm for all the following reasons except
Well counters are 100% accurate
How often must surveys be performed in areas where therapeutic radionuclides are prepared/administered
Which of the following monitor devices would be most appropriate for an individual exposed to large amount of ionizing radiation on a random/infrequent schedule
Which of the following devices uses a thin slice of aluminum oxide to detect radiation exposure
How often must routine surveys and wipe tests be performed if occupational workers in a department are likely to receive an annual dose of 100 mrem or less
Which of the following pioneers was the first to discover radiation arising from the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides
In what year was spontaneous radioactive materials discovered?
___ describes the probabilistic occurrence of long-term carcinogenic and gene mutations
The length of a latent phase is longer for hematopoietic syndrome than CNS? T or F
From which of the following acute radiation syndromes are humans least likely to recover
Which of the following is least radiosensitive
In general, the OER for low-LET systems is ___ the OER for high-LET systems
What is the main underlying assumption of the linear, non-threshold model?
Any radiation exposure, no matter how small, may induce cancer
The process of cellular oxidation involves which of the following actions?
A loss of electrons
When mice are irradiated with 250 kVp x-rays, death can occur at 650 rad. If similar mice are irradiated with alpha particles, death occurs at 180 rad. What is the RBE for the alpha particle when rounded to the nearest tenth?
In which stage of acute radiation do individuals experience nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting
What is the subject of Willhelm Conrad Roentgen's research when he discovered x-rays?
Which of the following statements accurately describes the meaning of "LD 50/30"
At a particular dose level, 50% of the population will die in 30 days
Which of the dose response models represents our approach as medical imaging professionals, as promoted by the NRC?
B (starting from zero in a linear fashion)
An individual exposed to a whole body acute dose of 1,000 rad will likely experience what effects?
Combination of hematologic and GI syndromes
Which acute radiation syndrome phase is associated with no out ward signs or symptoms
______ are specific predictable injuries that occur beyond a particular threshold of ionizing radiation exposure
According to the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau, at what point in the human life cycle is sensitivity to radiation the highest
A strand of human DNA is oxidized by free radicals following ionizing radiation exposure. Which of the following mechanisms is the most likely root cause of the damage?
Indirect effects of exposure
Which acute radiation syndrome renders the human body incapable of producing red and white blood cells and platelets
When mouse liver carcinomas are clamped and irradiated under hypoxic conditions, the tumor control dose is 12,500 rad. When these tumors are NOT clamped and irradiated under aerobic conditions the tumor control dose is 5,250 rad. What is the oxygen enhancement ratio for this system when rounded to the nearest tenth?
An individual who received radiation therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma as a teenager is diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 35. Is the patients breast cancer diagnosis a stochastic effect of her exposure to ionizing radiation as a young woman?
All of the following are true of a typical cell survival curve for simple cells EXCEPT
A threshold of hits is generally required before noticeable amounts of cell death occurs, leading to a shoulder on the graph
The patient experienced severe skin necrosis as a result of NM therapy treatment. What type of effect would this be classified as?
All of the following outcomes are hydrolysis of water are problematic for cells EXCEPT
(H+) + (H+) = H2
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