GBio Ch. 27

What is true in the molecular phylogeny (B) that is not true in the traditional phylogeny (A)?
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A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. The fact below that distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition fromingestionWhich of these would a paleontologist be most likely to do in order to determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal?Examine the teeth to determine how sharp or ground down they are.Evidence of which structure or characteristic would be most surprising to find among fossils of the Ediacaran fauna?hard body partsIn which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?reptiles and mammalsFossil evidence indicates that the following events occurred in what sequence, from earliest to most recent?1. Protostomes invade terrestrial environments.2. Cambrian explosion occurs.3. Deuterostomes invade terrestrial environments.4. Vertebrates become top predators in the seas.2 → 4 → 1 → 3Please use the following information to answer the question(s) below.Trichoplax adhaerens (Tp) is the only living species in the phylum Placozoa. Individuals are about 1 mm wide and only 27 μm high, are irregularly shaped, and consist of a total of about 2,000 cells, which are diploid (2n = 12). There are four types of cells, none of which is a nerve or muscle cell, and none of which has a cell wall. They move using cilia, and any "edge" can lead. Tp feeds on marine microbes, mostly unicellular green algae, by crawling atop the algae and trapping it between its ventral surface and the substrate. Enzymes are then secreted onto the algae, and the resulting nutrients are absorbed. Tp sperm cells have never been observed, nor have embryos past the 64-cell (blastula) stage.Tp's body symmetry seems to be most like that ofmost sponges.Which of the following characteristics distinguishes modern humans from other modern apes?1. Humans walk upright.2. Humans walk on two legs.3. Humans use simple tools.4. Humans are capable of symbolic thought.1, 2, and 4 onlyWhich of the following is unique to animals?nervous conduction and muscular movementPlease use the following information to answer the questions below.The most recently discovered phylum in the animal kingdom (1995) is the phylum Cycliophora. It includes three species of tiny organisms that live in large numbers on the outsides of the mouthparts and appendages of lobsters. When in the feeding stage, a cycliophoran permanently attaches to the lobster via an adhesive disk and collects scraps of food from its host's feeding by capturing the scraps in a current created by a ring of cilia. Its body is sac-like and has a U-shaped intestine that brings the anus close to the mouth. Cycliophorans are eucoelomate (have a body cavity that is a coelom) and do not molt (though their host does).Basing your inferences on information in the paragraph, to which clade(s) should cycliophorans belong?1. Eumetazoa2. Deuterostomia3. Bilateria4. Ecdysozoa5. Lophotrochozoa1, 3, and 5 onlyWhatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example ofadaptive radiation.