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Athletic injuries (Ankle/Foot/Lower Leg)

Terms in this set (37)

MOI: Any twisting injury to the lower extremity where the athlete's body turns and their foot remains planted in the ground or playing surface can lead to a midfoot sprain. When the athlete twists all the force that occurs when they plant and pivot is transmitted through their foot as opposed to through the ground. This can also occur in sports where the foot is purposely kept in place like a stirrup for jockeys and for windsurfers. Different playing surfaces and shoe wear can have an affect on an injury depending on the amount of friction that occurs between the two. An injury can also occur when another athlete lands or steps on the back of the patient's heel causing a large force to occur directly through the foot.

Signs and Symptoms: An athlete with a midfoot sprain will have sustained a twisting or pivoting injury to his or her foot. They will develop immediate pain and later swelling in the central region of their foot. The swelling often can lead to bruising on either the top or bottom or the foot. How much swelling and subsequent bruising occurs is related to how severe the injury is. The athlete will also complain of pain with bearing weight. In milder injuries they will be able to walk without too much pain, but the higher demands on the foot in athletics will be painful. On the other end of the spectrum, in more severe injuries, the injured athlete may not be able to bear any weight even to walk. On physical examination, the injured foot will look swollen and be tender over the injured joints. It's important that the examining physician localize the injury to the specific joints involved. The tendons of the foot should remain intact in a midfoot sprain, however their motion may produce pain in the foot if they place stress on the injured joints with motion.
MOI: An uncommon injury to a group of two tendons whose muscles originate on the outside of the calves. These two muscles are named the Peroneus Brevis and Peroneus Longus. These two muscles are responsible for eversion of the foot. These tendons are also called "stirrup" tendons because as they pass into the foot they act as a stirrup to help hold up the arch of the foot. As these tendons pass behind the outside ankle bone, called the fibula, they are held in place by a band of tissue called the peroneal retinaculum. Injury to the retinaculum can cause it to stretch or even tear. When this occurs the peroneal tendons can dislocate from their groove on the back of the fibula. The tendons can be seen to roll over the outside of the fibula. This will cause the tendons to function abnormally and can cause damage to the tendons. Most commonly occur as a result of injury during participation in athletic activities. The most common sport causing injury is snow skiing. It can also occur while playing football, basketball, and soccer.

Signs and Symptoms: Physical examination will reveal swelling behind the outside of the ankle if it is an acute injury. If the injury is chronic there may be little to no swelling. There is usually tenderness particularly when pressure is applied behind the outside of the ankle. Having the patient forcefully turn the foot outward against the physician's hand can demonstrate injury to this area. This will cause the injury over the outer edge of the lateral malleolus.