Management Exam 3 UCF

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Terms in this set (105)
effort-to-performance expectancyemployee's perception of the probability that effort will lead to a high level of performanceperformance-to-outcome expectancyThe individual's perception that performance will lead to a specific outcomeoutcomesConsequences of behaviors in an organizational setting, usually rewardsvalenceAn index of how much a person wants a particular outcome; the attractiveness of the outcome to the individualEquity theorySuggests that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performancereinforcement theorytheory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain wayspositive reinforcementA method of strengthening behavior with rewards or positive outcomes after a desired behavior is performedavoidanceUsed to strengthen behavior by avoiding unpleasant consequences that would result if the behavior were not performedPunishmentUsed to weaken undesired behaviors by using negative outcomes or unpleasant consequences when the behavior is performedextinctionUsed to weaken undesired behaviors by simply ignoring or not reinforcing themfixed-interval scheduleProvides reinforcement at fixed intervals of time, such as regular weekly paychecksvariable-interval scheduleProvides reinforcement at varying intervals of time, such as occasional visits by the supervisorfixed-ratio scheduleProvides reinforcement after a fixed number of behaviors regardless of the time interval involved, such as a bonus for every fifth salevariable-ratio scheduleProvides reinforcement after varying numbers of behaviors are performed, such as the use of compliments by a supervisor on an irregular basisbehavior modificationMethod for applying the basic elements of reinforcement theory in an organizational settingempowermentThe process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authorityparticipationThe process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about their own workcompressed work scheduleWorking a full 40-hour week in fewer than the traditional five daysflexible work scheduleWork schedule in which employees have some control over the hours they choose to work; also called flextimejob sharingWhen two part-time employees share one full-time jobTelecommutingAllowing employees to spend part of their time working offsite, usually at homereward systemThe formal and informal mechanisms by which employee performance is defined, evaluated, and rewardedMerit PayPay awarded to employees on the basis of the relative value of their contributions to the organizationMerit pay planCompensation plan that formally bases at least some meaningful portion of compensation on meritpiece-rate incentive planReward system wherein the organization pays an employee a certain amount of money for every unit she or he producesGainsharing PlanDesigned to share the cost savings from productivity improvements with employeesScanlon PlanSimilar to gainsharing, but the distribution of gains is tilted much more heavily toward employeesstock option planEstablished to give senior managers the option to buy company stock in the future at a predetermined fixed priceDeterminants of individual performancemotivation, ability, work environmentMcClelland's Theory of Needsa theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivationThe Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory-assumptions: if performance results in equitable and fair rewards, people will be more satisfied. high performance can lead to rewards and high satisfaction.characteristics of goalsGoal difficulty Goal specificity Goal acceptance Goal commitmentnine-eighty scheduleWorking one full week (five days) and one compressed week (four days), yielding one off-work day every other week.LeadershipThe action of leading a group of people or an organizationpowerthe ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentionslegitamate powerPower granted through the organizational hierarchy; the power defined by the organization to be accorded to people occupying particular positionsreward powerThe power to give or withhold rewards, such as salary increases, bonuses, promotions, praise, recognition, and interesting job assignmentscoercive powerThe power to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threatreferent powerThe personal power that accrues to someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charismaexpert powerThe personal power that accrues to someone based on the information or expertise they possessjob-centered leader behaviorThe behavior of leaders who pay close attention to the job and work procedures involved with that jobemployee-centered leader behaviorThe behavior of leaders who develop cohesive work groups and ensure employee satisfactioninitiating-structure behaviorThe behavior of leaders who define the leader-subordinate role so that everyone knows what is expected, establish formal lines of communication, and determine how tasks will be performedconsideration behaviorThe behavior of leaders who show concern for subordinates and attempt to establish a warm, friendly, and supportive climateconcern for productionThe part of the Leadership Grid that deals with the job and task aspects of leader behaviorconcern for peopleThe part of the Leadership Grid that deals with the human aspects of leader behaviorLeast Preferred Coworker (LPC)The measuring scale that asks leaders to describe the person with whom he or she is able to work least wellPath-Goal TheoryA theory of leadership suggesting that the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to those rewardsVroom's Expectancy TheoryPredicts what kinds of situations call for different degrees of group participationLeader-Member Exchange TheoryStresses that leaders have different kinds of relationships with different subordinatessubstitues for leadershipA concept that identifies situations in which leader behaviors are neutralized or replaced by characteristics of subordinates, the task, and the organizationCharasmatic LeadershipAssumes that charisma is an individual characteristic of the leaderTransformational LeadershipLeadership that goes beyond ordinary expectations by transmitting a sense of mission, stimulating learning experiences, and inspiring new ways of thinkingstrategic leadershipThe ability to understand the complexities of both the organization and its environment and to lead change in the organization in order to achieve and maintain a superior alignment between the organization and its environmentpolitical behaviorActivities carried out for the specific purpose of acquiring, developing, and using power and other resources to obtain one's preferred outcomesimpression managementA direct and intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her image in the eyes of othersCross-cultural leadershipthe capability to provide purpose and direction that encompasses both international and diversity-based cultural differences in the organizationEthical Leadershipprovides a strong corporate governance model to the organization that reflects the high ethical standards of its leaders.CommunicationThe process of transmitting information from one person to anothereffective communicationThe process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intendedoral communicationFace-to-face conversation, group discussions, telephone calls, and other circumstances in which the spoken word is used to transmit meaningnonverbal communicationAny communication exchange that does not use words or uses words to carry more meaning than the strict definition of the words themselveswritten communicationMemos, letters, reports, notes, and other circumstances in which the written word is used to transmit meaningcommunication networksThe pattern through which the members of a group communicateVertical communicationCommunication that flows up and down the organization, usually along formal reporting lines; takes place between managers and their superiors and subordinates and may involve several different levels of the organizationhorizontal communicationCommunication that flows laterally within the organization; involves colleagues and peers at the same level of the organization and may involve individuals from several different organizational unitsGrapevineAn informal communication network among people in an organizationmanagement by wandering aroundAn approach to communication that involves the manager's literally wandering around and having spontaneous conversations with othersinterpersonal communication rolefigurehead, leader, LiasonInformational communication rolespokesperson, monitor, disseminatorDecisional communication roleEntrepreneur, Negotiatorsteps in the communication process1. Identify the message 2. Encode and transmit the message 3. Receive and decode the message 4. Confirm the message with feedbackCommunication network formswheel, Y, Circle, All channel, ChainGroupConsists of two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goalfunctional groupA permanent group created by the organization to accomplish a number of organizational purposes with an unspecified time horizoninformal or interest groupCreated by its members for purposes that may or may not be relevant to those of the organizationtask groupA group created by the organization to accomplish a relatively narrow range of purposes within a stated or implied time horizonroleThe parts individuals play in groups in helping the group reach its goalsrole structureThe set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group members define and acceptrole ambiguityArises when the sent role is unclear and the individual does not know what is expected of him or herrole conflictOccurs when the messages and cues composing the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusiverole overloadOccurs when expectations for the role exceed the person's ability to performNormStandards of behavior that the group accepts for and expects of its membersSpecializationGeneralized norm conformity that occurs as a person makes the transition from being an outsider to being an insider in the organizationCohesivenessThe extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the groupinformal leaderA person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized by the organization or groupConflictA disagreement among two or more individuals or groupsNegotiationThe process in which two or more parties (people or groups) reach agreement on an issue even though they have different preferences regarding that issueTypes of teamsProblem-solving teams Self-managed work teams Cross-functional teams Virtual teamsFormingattempting to define the task and how it will be accomplished through discussions of task-related concepts/issuesStormingdefensiveness, intragroup competition, and the formation of factions; arguing among members, even when they agreerole conflict in teamsinterrole conflict, intrarole conflict, intrasender conflict, person role conflictinterpersonal conflict-personality clash -differing beliefs or perceptions -competitivenessintergroup conflict-interdependence -different goals -competition for scarce resourcesApproaches to Negotiation-psychological -contextual -mathematical -behavioral