Patient Care Final Exam

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Terms in this set (181)
flatusgas expelled through the anushydrationMaintenance of body fluid balanceloopogramThe radiographic evaluation of the small and large bowel that has been connected to the skin surface as a substitute for the urinary bladder with an ostomylow residue dietdiet that gives the least possible fecal residue, such as gelatin, sucrose, dextrose, broth, and ricelumenthe cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organNG tubetubes of soft rubber or plastic inserted through a nostril and into the stomach; for instilling liquid foods or other substances or for withdrawing gastric contentsostomateone who has undergone enterostomy or ureterostomyperineumregion between the thighs, bound in the male by the scrotum and anus and in the female by the vulva and anuspurgationcatharsis; relief of fecal matter affected by a catharticsigmoidoscopyvisual examination of the sigmoid colonstomaopening established in the abdominal wall by colostomy, ileostomy, and so forthurinalvessel or other receptacle for urinevirtual colonoscopyIt is performed on a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner that takes up to 600 two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of the colon in approximately 30 secondsviscosityPhysical property of fluids responsible for resistance to flowauraa subjective sensation that precedes a seizure; it could be auditory, visual, or motor.AEDsdevice used for application of external electrical shock to extranormal cardiac rhythm and ratecardiac arestsudden stoppage of cardiac output and effective circulationcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for cardiac arrest or apparent sudden death resulting from electric shock, drowning, respiratory arrest, and other causescerebrovascular accident (stroke)condition with sudden onset caused by acute vascular lesions of the brain; often followed by permanent neurologic damageemergencyunexpected or sudden occasion; an urgent or pressing needepistaxisnosebleedhemorrhageescape of blood from a ruptured blood vesselhyperclycemiaabnormally increased concentration of glucose in bloodHypoglycemiaabnormally low level of sugar in the bloodlethargyabnormal drowsinessnauseaunpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomitpallorpalenessshockA condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.syncopefaintingurticariavascular reaction, usually transient, involving the upper dermis, representing localized edema caused by dilatation and increased permeability of the capillaries and marked by the development of wheals; also called hivesventricular fibrillationdisorganized cardiac rhythmvertigodizzinessvomittingthe forceful ejection of stomach and intestinal contents (chyme) from the mouthwoundsbodily injuries caused by physical means with disruption of the normal continuity of structureswound dehiscenceseparation of the layers of a surgical wound; may be partial, or superficial only, or complete, with disruption of all layersWhat are Maslow's Hierarchy of Need's?1. physiological 2. safety 3. love/belonging 4. esteem 5. self-actualizationWhat is the application of light pressure with the fingers to the body termed?PalpationObjectiveperceptible to the senses- signs that can be seen, heard or felt and lab reportsSubjectivedata perceived by the patients- emotions and experiences- pain severityDefine chief complaintUsually the patients single most important issue - directly related to the first symptom that is discussed by the patientWhat is the "Sacred Seven" ?a. Localization b. Chronology c. Quality d. Severity e. Onset f. Aggravating or alleviating factors g. Associated manifestationsDefine Biomechanicslaws of mechanics to living creatures- examines the action of forces on bodies at rest or in motionBase of support where is it locatedthe foundation on which the body rests- when standing the feet are the base of supporthow is the base of support is increase or decreasedstanding with feet apart increase, standing on one foot or tiptoe decreasesHow should a technologist stand when transferring patients?Feet apart to provide a large base of supportWhere is the center of gravity locatedthe sacral level twoWhere should heavy object be located in comparison to this area when moving said object?Close to the mover/s center of gravitywhere are mobility muscles locatedlimbsWhere are stability muscles located?torsoList the commonly attached medical equipment that your patient may have:a. O2 b. IV lines c. Central lines d. Postsurgical drain Urine bagsWhat is the best way to reduce patient motion?CommunicationDefine rapportthe relation of harmony and accord between two personDefine empathyrespect and concern for the patient as a personName the various types of positioning aides available to assist the patient and technologist .a. Sponges b. Velcro straps c. Velcro restraints d. Sandbags Head clampsDefine homeostasisrelative constancy in the internal environment of the body that is naturally maintained.What are the primary mechanisms that maintain homeostasis?Heartbeat, blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate and electrolyte balanceBody temp98.6 deg. F range 97.7 - 99.5 oral - thermometerRespirations adult12-20 breaths per minuteRespirations of Child20-30 breaths per minutePulse adult range60-100 bpmPulse Child70-120 bpmblood pressure range120/80what do we use to measure blood pressuresphygmomanometer and stethoscopeWhat is the abnormal sweating of the body to maintain body temperatureDiaphoresisWhat is done by the body to prevent heat ? to conserve heatshivering and vasoconstrictionIf taking a temperature tympanic or rectally , what should be done to the temperature to compare it to an oral temp?a. Tympanic- add 1 degree b. Rectally- subtract a degreeWhat term is used to describe a person with a temperature?FebrileHyperthermiaoral temp is above 99.5hypothermiaoral temp is below normal rangeWhat is a pulse oximeter?A noninvasive device used to provide assessment of the hemoglobin oxygen saturation of arterial blood as well as the patient's pulse rate.trachypnearespiration greater than 20 breaths per minutebrachypneadecrease in resp ratedyspneadifficulty breathingorthopneadifficulty breathing unless sitting or standing erectapneaabsence of spontaneous respirationtrachycardiaheart rate greater than 100 BPMBrachycardiadecrease in heart ratehypertensionelevated blood pressure, 140/90hypotensionlow blood pressure, 95/60Hypoxiainadequate amount of oxygen at the cellular level in tissueWhat being measured during auscultation?Heartrate with a stethoscopeWhat is tidal volume?The depth of breathWhat is an endotracheal tube used for?Mechanical ventilation or O2 deliveryWhat does being " intubated" mean?A patient is placed on mechanical ventilation and has an ET tube inserted into their airwayWhat is the purpose of a thoracostomy tube?Chest tube- used to drain the intrapleural space and mediastinum of fluid or air accumulation in either spaceWhat is the main purpose of a CV line?Administration of drugs, management of fluids, monitor cardia pressures.What is the preferred location of a CV line?Superior vena cava 2-3 cm above the right atrial junctionWhat does PICC line stand for?percutaneous inserted central catheterWhat do PA lines measureLeft ventricular end diastolic pressureInfectionestablishment and growth of a microorganism on or in a hostpathogenscause infectious diseasesexotoxinsorganic substancesbacteriamicroscopic single celled organisms with a simple internal organizationfunngieukaryotic organism with a nucleus and membrane-bound organellesprotozoaunicellular organisms that are neither plants nor animals with no cell wall- eukaryoticfomiteinanimate object that has been in contact with an infectious organism- food, water and x-ray equip. are examplesfloramicrobial community found on or in a healthy perosnprokaryotesbacteria that lacks nucleuseukaryotesbacteria that have a nucleuswhat are the classes of protozoaa. Ameboid locomotion b. Flagellum c. Cilia d. SporozoansWhat are the 6 steps in the establishment of an infectious disease?a. Encounter b. Entry c. Spread d. Multiplication e. Damage f. OutcomeWhat must be present for infections to be transmitted?a. Host b. Infectious microorganism c. Mode of transportation d. ReservoirWhat are health-care associated infections?Infections that people acquire while they are receiving treatment for another condition while in a health care settingWhat type of infection is a result of intervention with a physician?iatrogenicHIV and HIB are considered what type of pathogen?Blood borneasepsisfreedom from infectionsurgical asepsisthe procedure used to prevent contamination of microbes and endospores before, during and after surgery using sterile technique.Sterilizationabsolute killing of all lifeformmedical asepsisreduction in numbers of infectious agentsWhat are the chemical methods of controlling microbials?DisinfectantsWhat is a topical disinfectant called?AntisepticWhat is the difference between a bacteriostatic agent and a bactericidal agent?Static agents stops bacterial growth and cidal agents causes cell killingWhat is THE most important thing in preventing the spread of infection?Hand washingAirborne-respiratory protection that filter airdropletsurgical mask with 3 feet to the patientcontactgloves and gownWhat is the term for a specified area that is considered free of viable microorganisms?sterile fieldWhat is the main goal of aseptic techniques?To prevent the patient from infection and prevent the spread of pathogens and microorganismsWhat is the difference between cleaning something, sanitizing it and disinfecting?a. Cleaning is removing dirt and other impurities b. Sanitize is to reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level c. Disinfect- remove most microorganisms by not highly resistant onesWhat is the other name for a manual resuscitator?Ambu bagWhere is a suprapubic catheter locatedInserted aprox 1 inch above the symphysis pubis into the distended bladderWho requires the labeling of needle containers and breakable items of hazardous waste?The Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationWhat are NG tubes and where are they placed?Nasogastric tubes- through the nasopharynx and into the stomachwhat is the most common NG tubeLevin tubehypotonic solutionplain waterhypertonic solutionused when a pt can't tolerate large amounts of fluid- pulls fluid from interstitial spaces around the colonWhat is the meaning of purgation?Removal of fecal material utilizing a variety of laxativesWhat contrast agents are used in radiography of the bowel?Radiopaque contrast such as barium and GastrografinWhat is a colostomy?When diseased portion/portions of the colon are removed and is rerouted to the outside of the body- bypassing the rectumWhat is a stoma ?the mouth of the bowel on the outside of the body- placed wieh a pt gets a colostomyThe term that indicates a failure of the circulatory system to support vital body functions:shockwhat are 4 types of shockhypovolemic, cardiogenic, neurogenic, vasogenicHypovolemiclow blood volumeCardiogeniccardiac disordersNeurogenictype of shock- Injury and trauma to brain and/or spinal cordVasogenic Shockcaused by sepsis, deep anesthesia, or anaphylaxisWhat two types of shock may a technologist encounter from the injection of contrast?Hypovolemic or anaphylacticHow can shock help to be prevented?Avoid sudden changes in body temp, ovoid overheating. Reduce pain, stress and anxietyWhat are the signs and symptoms of shock?Restlessness, apprehension, anxiety, tachycardia, decreased BP, cold / clammy skin or pallorHypoglycemiaexcessive insulin is presenthyperglycemiaexcessive sugar in the bloodepistaxisnosebleedvertigodizzinesssyncopefaintingHemmorrhagebleeding outside a vesseladvance directivea legal document prepared by a living, competent adult to provide guidance to the health care team if the individual should become unable to make decisions regarding his or her medical care; may also be called a living will or durable power of attorney for health carecommunicationexchange of information, thoughts, or messages; includes interpersonal rapportemotional intelligenceability to evaluate, perceive, and control emotionsGerontologypertaining to the study of older adultsinpatientsomeone who has been admitted to the hospital for diagnostic studies or treatmentoutpatientpatient who comes to a health care facility for diagnosis or treatment but does not usually occupy a bed overnightparalanguagemusic of language; cadence and rhythm of speechPatient Assessmentobjective evaluation and determination of the status of a patientpatient autonomyability and right of patients to make independent decisions regarding their medical careCheif Complaintprimary medical problem as defined by the patient; important because it focuses the clinical history toward the single most important issuechronologytime element of the history, usually including the onset, duration, frequency, and course of the symptomsclinical historyinformation available regarding a patient's condition; traditionally comprises data on localization, quality, quantity, chronology, setting, aggravating or alleviating factors, and associated manifestationsleading questionsundesirable method of questioning that provides information that may direct answers toward a suggested symptom or complaintLocalizationDetermination of a precise area, usually through gentle palpation or careful wording of questionsobjectiveperceptible to the external sensesqualityDescription of the character of the symptoms - for example, the color, quantity, and consistency of blood or other body substances; size or number of lumps or lesions; frequency of urination or coughing; or character of pain.subjectivepertaining to or perceived only by the affected individual; not perceptible to the sensesBiomechanicsA component of physics, the laws of Newtonian mechanics, to living bodies at rest and in motionorthostatic hypotensionlow blood pressure that occurs upon standing upambulatoryable to walkrapportrelation of harmony and accord between two personsdiastolicpertaining to dilation, or a period of relaxation of the heart, especially of the ventricleshypoxemiadecreased level of oxygen in the bloodpleural effusionincreased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually the result of inflammationsystolicPertaining to tightening, or a period of contraction of the heart (myocardium), especially that of the ventriclesdimorphicoccurring in two distinct forms