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Land of Sumer that was later named this in honor of Ham's son


Land of Sumer that was later named this in honor of the Philistines, who dwelt on the southwestern coast of the land.


Land of Sumer that was later named this in honor of the name God gave to Jacob.

The world's 3 great monotheistic religions

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam

Holy Land

The name that Christianity, Judaism, and Islam has given to the Promised Land.


Left Ur around 2000 B.C.; was known as "father of a great nation."


Abraham's son


Isaac's son


the founding fathers of the nation of Israel; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob's 12 sons.


one of the greatest men in world history who delivered the Israelites from Egyptian bondage and lead them to the land promised to their fathers.


a solemn agreement

The Ten Commandments

a summary of right and wrong, good and evil; AKA, Decalogue


a nation ruled by God


where David established his capital; the former Jebusite stronghold


a phonetic system of writing in which letters are used to represent sounds rather than things or ideas

Sinai Script

known as the first true alphabet


where a more streamlined form of the alphabet appeared


the term from which we get the words "book" and "Bible"


Semitic seafarers and merchants; so-called this by the Greek

1000 B.C.

the year in which Israel was the greatest nation in the world under David and Solomon

Northern Kingdom

when the empire split up, Israel became this part

Southern Kingdom

when the empire split up, Judah became this part

721 B.C.

the year Samaria, the capital of the Northern Kingdom, fell to Assyrian invaders.

586 B.C.

the year Jerusalem, the capital of the Southern Kingdom, fell to the Babylonians.

Jesus Christ

the Messiah of Israel and the Savior of the world who was born while Rome ruled the world.

Byzantine Empire

Eastern Roman Empire that controlled parts of the Middle East for over a thousand years


the capital of the Byzantine Empire


another name for Byzantium; modern-day Istanbul; in European Turkey


the fanatical, militant new religion based in the Arabian Peninsula that increasingly threatened Byzantium after A.D. 600


an Arab mystic who started the religion of Islam


the city Mohammed was from


Mohammed's followers


the term that describes the forced fleeing of Mohammed, his family, and his followers in 622 because of persecution from the authorities


Mohammed's successors whom ruled much of the Middle East and North Africa from the capitals of Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo


the holy book of Islam

Henry Martyn

the pioneer Englishman missionary in Persia, and throughout the Middle East

Ion-Keith Falconer

the first man in modern times to attempt to reach the Muslims of arabia with the gospel of Christ; a Scottish nobleman and graduate of Cambridge University

Samuel Zwemer

partnered with James Cantine to establish the Arabian Mission; became know as the "Apostle to Islam"

2 Basic Elements that Form Arabic Words

root and pattern


generally consists of 3 consonants and gives lexical meaning to the word


consists of vowels and giving grammatical meaning to the word

2 Varieties of the Arabic Language

classical (literary) and colloquial

Classical Arabic

the language of the Koran and the official language of Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen.

Colloquial Arabic

language that consists of numerous spoken dialects, all of which have been heavily influenced by the classical, literary Arabic; major dialects of this language are in Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, North Africa, and Syria.

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