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Final Exam Review - Biology
Terms in this set (84)
Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
Amoeba, paramecium, diatoms, lichen, and algae
Diseases caused by protists
1. MALARIA (plasmodium protozoa cause malaria)
2. African trypanosomiasis
3. Chagas disease
The way protists are classified
For classification, the protists are divided into three groups: Animal-like protists, which are heterotrophs and have the ability to move. Plant-like protists, which are autotrophs that photosynthesize. Fungi-like protists, which are heterotrohps, and they have cells with cell walls and reproduce by forming spores.
The presence or absence of certain organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Protists can be single called or multicellular
Plantlike protists must contain what to be able to carry out photosynthesis
How do fungus like protists get their energy
By absorbing nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter. (Absorbing the food via cell wall.
How are animal like protists classified
Animal like protists are single-called consumers. Animal like protists are also known as protoaza. These certain protists are classified by how they are capable of moving.
a parasitic plant lacking chlorophyll and leaves and true stems and roots and reproducing by spores
Saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing eukaryotic organisms that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts.
relationship in which an organism obtains its nourishment from dead organic matter
Fungi living in the vaginal canal are in constant competition with what other microorganisms?
living at the expense of another; sponging
How do must fungi feed? What are other ways that some fungi feed?
Feed on nutrients from decaying matter in the soil as well as parasites absorbing nutrients from the bodies of their hosts
How do fungi reproduce?
sexually and asexually
Know the function of the following fungi terms: hyphae, mycelium, stolon, rhizoid
Hyphae: each of the branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus
Mycelium: A network of fungal threads or hyphae
Stolon: Also called a runner; a slender stem that grows horizontally along the ground. (Giving rise to roots and vertical (aerial) branches at specialized points called nodes.
Rhizoid: A filament outgrowth or root hair on the underside of the thallus in some lower plants, especially mosses and liverworts, serving both to anchor the plant and to conduct water.
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.
What are the lichens and what types of environments can they survive in?
crustose, foliose, fruticose
The algae, with the protection of the fungi's filaments, can grow in a much drier place than if it were on its own. Because of this, lichens can tolerate extreme climates like dry, arid deserts and freezing tundra. In places where true plants cannot survive, lichens are a huge contributor of oxygen to the atmosphere.May 17, 2021
The fungi play a major role as decomposers and recyclers, making it possible for members of the other kingdoms to be supplied with nutrients and to live. The food web would be incomplete without organisms that decompose organic matter.
What is the most important role of fungi in our environment?
Yeasts feed on sugars and starches, which are abundant in bread dough! They turn this food into energy and release
carbon dioxide gas
as a result. This is process is known as fermentation
When yeast ferments, what gas is it putting off to allow bread to rise?
Mushrooms, molds, and yeasts
Diseases: Athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, yeast infection, onychomycosis, or a fungal infection of the nail
Know the common fungi and the diseases they cause.
The cell wall is a characteristic structure of fungi and is composed mainly of glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins.
What are fungi cell walls composed of?
Any of the eukaryotic organisms of the biological kingdom Plantae, characterized by being photosynthetic and having a rigid cell wall.
What is the definition of a plant?
The primary functions of the stem are to support the leaves; to conduct water and minerals to the leaves, where they can be converted into usable products by photosynthesis; and to transport ease products from the leaves to other parts of the plant, including the root
What re the major functions of stems in plants?
An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
Cuticle: the outer most layers of plants, which cover leaves, fruits, flowers, and non-woody stems of higher plants. It protects plants against drought, extreme temperatures, UV radiation, chemical attack, mechanical injuries, and pathogen/pest infection.
Epidermis: The outermost cell layers of the primary plant body; epidermal cells are tightly linked to each other and provide mechanical strength and protection to the plant. The walls of the epidermal cells of the above-ground parts of plants contain cut in, and are covered with a cuticle.
Mesophyll: The inner tissue (parenchyma) of a leaf, containing many chloroplasts
Xylem: The vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the roots and also helps to form the woody element in the stem.
Phloem: The vascular tissue, in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.
Guard cell: Specialized plant cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs that are used to control gas exchange. They are produced in pairs with a gap between them that forms a stomatal pore (oxygen), produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis, exits the plant via the stomata.
Stomata: Minute openings found in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other plant organs. Stomata allow gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the internal tissues of the plant.
What is the main function of the following cell types: cuticle, epidermis, mesophyll, xylem, phloem, guard cell, stomata?
Monocots have one cotyledon (vein) while dicots have two
Monocots have long narrow leaves and parallel veins while dicots have a broad leaf and a network of veins.
Monocots have vascular bundles scattered while dicots have vascular bundles in a ring
What are the differences between the two categories of angiosperms(monocot/dicot)?
A seed has an embryo, a supply of nutrients for the embryo, and a seed coat. The embryo is protected by the seed coat.
Seeds have: seed coat, embryo, endosperm, cotyledon, and a monocot.
What all does the seed contain?
-Produce food for the plant by photosynthesis.
What are the major functions of the leaves?
Phototropism - response to light
Geotropism - response to gravity
Chemotropism - response to particular substances
What are the 3 tropisms and what cause them to occur?
Petal - attract pollinators to the flower
Carpel (Pistil) - The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style. It may occur singly or as one of a group
Pistil - produce ovule; the female reproductive part of a flower. Receives pollen and helps in the fertilization process
Stigma - The part of a pistil that receives the pollen during pollination.
Style - the stalk that supports the stigma and connects it to the ovary. One major function of the style is to assist with fertilization by being the location where pollen tubes travel to deliver sperm cells to the egg.
(NOT FINISHED) Know the function of the following flower parts: petal, carpel/pistil, stigma, style, ovary, ovule, stamen, filament, and sepal.
What are ways that seeds can be dispersed?
How does fruit help with seed dispersal?
The term "vascular tissue" refers s to what?
Moving to land required plants to develop what type of adaptations?
What are plant cell walls composed of?
What is fruit?
What is the definition of an animal?
What does cephalization refer to, and in what types of symmetry would it be found?
What is the difference between and open/closed circulatory system?
Would animals with simple nervous systems be able to exhibit complex behaviors?
What are the 3 types of symmetry? Know examples of animals that exhibit each type.
What is the difference between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton?
What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate?
The chordate phylum is very special because it requires what 4 characteristics.
What are the 4 basic types of tissues in the human body?
What are the levels of organization in the human body starting with cells -> organism?
What is homeostasis and know 2 examples?
What are the major functions of the following systems: lymphatic, nervous, excretory, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, endocrine, integumentary, circulatory?
What are the major structures in the following systems: lymphatic, nervous, excretory, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, endocrine, integumentary, circulatory?
Sweating, urination, and respiration are all related because they all allow the body to rid itself of what excess?
Know the monomers and functions of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids.
What macromolecule is our main source of energy?
Who is the father of evolution?
What islands did Charles Darwin explore and gain the majority of his information from?
What were the main ideas that Darwin proposed?
What was Darwin's work titled, and why did Darwin wait so long to publish his work?
What does the term "survival of the fittest" mean?
What people influenced Darwin?
What physical structures were evidence of evolution to Darwin.
What does the term "fitness" mean?
Know what the following terms mean: vestigial structure, homologous structures, analogous structure
Who was Carlous Linnaeus and what was his major contribution to science?
What is binomial nomenclature?
What is the order of classification starting with Domain -> Species
What are the 2 major categories of cells and how do you determine the difference between them?
What are the 2 major categories of bacteria and how do you know the difference between them?
What are the 3 shapes that bacteria are classified?
How are bacteria helpful/harmful?
What is the basic structure of a virus?
What is a vaccine and what does it do?
What does a Gram staining test show?
What are antibiotics and what do they do?
Know the common bacteria diseases.
Know the common viral diseases.
Know the levels of organization in the environment starting with Organisms -> Biosphere
Know the following terms: producer, autotroph, consumer, hetero trophy, decomposer, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, scavenger, detrivore
What is the 10% rule and where does the other 90% go?
What is nitrogen fixation, what organism does it, and why is it important?
Energy in the living environment flows in how many directions?
Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen & water) in the living environment flow in how many directions?
A valid hypothesis must be _______
A valid hypothesis is based on what?
How many variables are tested in a controlled experiment?
What are the characteristics of living things?
Biology is the study of?
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