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LEARNING UNIT (modules 26-30)
Terms in this set (20)
Which of the following is the best example of learning?
a. A dog salivates when food is placed in its mouth.
b. A honeybee stings when the hive is threatened.
c. A child cries when his brother hits him.
d. A child feels ill after drinking sour milk.
e. A child flinches when he sees lightning because he is afraid of thunder.
E. A child flinches when he sees lightning because he is afraid of thunder.
A family uses the microwave to prepare their cat's food. The cat comes running into the room when the microwave timer sounds, but not when it hears the oven timer. The cat is demonstrating the concept of
c. spontaneous recovery.
In classical conditioning, a person learns to anticipate events by
a. associating a response with its consequence.
b. avoiding spontaneous recovery.
c. using operant behaviors.
d. associating two stimuli.
e. employing cognitive learning.
D. associating two stimuli.
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus
a. naturally triggers a response.
b. is a naturally occurring response.
c. is initially neutral, and then comes to trigger a response.
d. prompts spontaneous recovery.
e. is a reward offered for completing a behavior.
C. is initially neutral, and then comes to trigger a response.
Students are accustomed to a bell ringing to indicate the end of a class period. The principal decides to substitute popular music for the bell to indicate the end of each class period. Students quickly respond to the music in the same way they did to the bell. In this example, the music is a(n)
a. conditioned response.
b. conditioned stimulus.
c. unconditioned response.
d. unconditioned stimulus.
e. habituated response.
B. conditioned stimulus
Students in a school are accustomed to moving to the next class when music plays. After a period of time, the principal replaces the music with a bell to signal the end of class. If one days he plays the music by mistake and the students leave class, which of the following is being shown?
d. spontaneous recovery
e. operant conditioning
D. spontaneous recovery
The purpose of reinforcement is to
a. cause a behavior to stop.
b. cause a behavior to diminish.
c. cause a behavior to continue.
d. strengthen the spontaneous recovery process.
e. cause a behavior to occur for only a limited amount of time.
C. cause a behavior to continue.
Which of the following best describes negative reinforcement?
a. John stops shooting bad free-throws because his coach benches him when he does.
b. Brian studies hard because it earns him "A" grades in math.
c. Lillian used to walk to school but does not do so anymore because she was attacked by a dog last month.
d. Charles smokes because his anxiety is reduced when he does so.
e. Osel wears his seat belt because his driving teacher cited accident statistics in class.
D. Charles smokes because his anxiety is reduced when he does so.
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely to be repeated is:
a. Law of effect
b. Operant conditioning
d. Respondent behavior
A. Law of effect
All of the following are examples of primary reinforcers except a
a. rat's food reward in a Skinner box.
b. cold drink on a hot day.
c. high score on an exam for which a student studied diligently.
d. hug from a loved one.
e. large meal following an extended time without food.
C. high score on an exam for which a student studied diligently
Shea bought 10 tickets for the raffle for free homecoming entry, but she did not win. Months later she also buys 10 tickets for the senior prom raffle, hoping this will be the time she wins. Which schedule of reinforcement is best used to explain this scenario?
Paola has been classically conditioned to fear a red light because it has been paired with a loud noise. If the light is repeatedly presented without the loud noise she will eventually stop being afraid of the light. In this instance, ____________ has occurred.
c. spontaneous recovery
Which of the following is the best advice to give parents whose young children refuse to eat their dinner?
a. Do not allow them to watch television for a week for each day they do not eat dinner.
b. Give the children a small reward at the end of a week in which they have eaten dinner each night.
c. Give the children a small reward each day that they eat their dinner.
d. Require that the children do extra chores if they do not finish their dinner.
e. Allow the children to have dessert, even if they do not eat their dinner, in the hopes that the will eat dinner the next day.
C. Give the children a small reward each day that they eat their dinner.
The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished response is called
b. spontaneous recovery.
d. operant conditioning.
e. classical conditioning.
B. spontaneous recovery
Superstitious behavior can be produced by
a. placing a conditioned response (CR) before a conditioned stimulus (CS).
b. the accidental timing of rewards.
c. possession of a large number of traditionally lucky items.
d. cognitive awareness of superstitious behavior in others.
e. the change in a reinforcement schedule from ratio to interval.
B. the accidental timing of rewards
When parents offer good-grade rewards to children who already enjoy studying, they may find that the children no longer enjoy studying and only enjoy the rewards. Which of the following have the parents accidentally removed from their children?
a. Latent learning
b. Extrinsic motivation
c. Intrinsic motivation
d. Insight learning
e. Emotion-focused coping
C. Intrinsic motivation
Which ability is likely to predict good adjustment, better grades, and social success?
b. An external locus of control
c. Problem-focused coping
d. Learned helplessness
e. Emotion-focused coping
C. Problem-focused coping
Elephants appear to have excellent __________ because they can remember large sections of their territory.
a. latent learning
c. cognitive maps
d. extrinsic motivation
e. mirror neurons
C. cognitive maps
The perception that we control our own fate is also called what?
b. Learned helplessness
c. Internal locus of control
d. External locus of control
e. Emotion-focused coping
C. Internal locus of control
A woman had been pondering a problem for days and was about to give up when, suddenly, the solution came to her. Her experience can best be described as what?
a. Cognitive mapping
c. Operant conditioning
d. Classical conditioning
e. Unconscious associative learning
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