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Chapter 12- Basics of Chemistry
Terms in this set (56)
A solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral)
A solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral)
Also known as bases; compounds that react with acids to form salts.
Alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.
Alpha hydroxy acids
Abbreviated AHAs; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) that are often used to exfoliate the skin.
Colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen.
an ion with a negative charge
smallest unit of matter
an ion with a positive charge
a change in the chemical composition or make-up of a substance
Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance.
Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.
Rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
Compound molecules (compounds)
A chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
simplest form of matter, cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity
Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions.
An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
Chemical reaction that releases a significant amount of heat
Sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams.
An alpha hydroxy acid used in exfoliation and to lower the pH of products.
Liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.
the study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain hydrogen
An atom or molecule that has a positive or negative charge.
The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions.
Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).
multiples of 10
anything that takes up space and has mass (weight)
Liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions.
A chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Abbreviated O/W emulsion; oil droplets emulsified in water.
The study of substances that contain the element carbon.
A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
Also known as redox; a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen).
substance that releases oxygen
The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions
A measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance; the pH scale has a range of 0 to 14, 7 being neutral. pH below seven is an acidic solution, and a pH above is an Alkaline solution
A change in the form/physical properties of a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
a physical combination of matter in any proportions
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
subatomic particles with a positive charge
A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions.
A substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound.
Special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers.
The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.
the substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution i.e. the water dissolving salt
states of matter
the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
A contraction of surface active agents; substances that allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify.
Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid.
A colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions.
Alcohols that evaporate easily.
volatile organic compounds
Abbreviated VOCs; compounds that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile).
Abbreviated W/O emulsion; water droplets are emulsified in oil.
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