Variables that can take on a finite set of values (ending)
Variables that can take on an infinite set of values (non-ending)
An extra tenth, midway between the given value and the next lower/higher value (9.87 = 9.865/9.875)
An entire set of possible observations that may be made
A collection of numbers drawn from a population
The variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher
The response that is measured
Describes behavior with identifying the cause
Describes behavior but does not identify causes
An observational study with subjects that are already grouped from existing categories
Mutually exclusive categories (category)
Mutually exclusive categories and logical natural order (ranks)
Mutually exclusive categories, logical and natural order with equal differences between values
Touching bar graph with interval/ration data
Non-touching bar graph with nominal/ordinal data
Line graph with interval/ratio data
One peak in the graph
Two peaks in the graph
Equidistant lengths from the mean
Differing lengths from the mean
How pointed or flat the curve is
Advantages of Mode
Unaffected by extreme scores, is an actual score in the distribution, can use mode with all data
Disadvantages of Mode
May not represent data well, can easily be affected by one or two scores
Advantages of Median
Unaffected by extreme scores, can use with ordinal or interval/ratio data (can represent skewed data)
Disadvantages of Median
May not represent data well, value you may not exist as a real score, cannot use with nominal data
Advantages of Mean
Every point contributes to the mean, can be used in equations, unbiased estimate of population
Disadvantages of Mean
Influenced by extreme scores, can be used with interval/ratio, value may not exist in the data
Mode = Mean = Median
Any normal distribution
Use Mode with...
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/Ratio data
Use Median with...
Ordinal, Interval/Ration data
Use Mean with...
Indicates the spread of distribution and the degree to which scores are clustered about the mean
Measures of Variability
Range, Standard Deviation, Variance
Degrees of Freedom
The number of values in a data set that can vary
A point where a line changes from concave to convex
Values that divide the distribution into 100 equal parts
A particular person's rank relative to the reference group
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