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AP Biology, Big Idea #1 Test

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evolution
change in the genetic makeup of a population over time
taxonomy
branch of biology that names and classifies the diverse forms of life
binomial nomenclature
every organism has a two word name
gradualism
earth was molded by slow gradual change, not by sudden violent events
stabilizing selection
eliminates the extremes and favors the intermediates
diverse/disruptive selection
invreases the extremes at the expense of the intermediates
sexual selection
variation in secondary sexual characteristics used in competing for and attracting mates
artificial selection
humas breed individuals with desired traits
balanced polymorphism
population divides into two distinct types
homologous structures
structures in different species that are similar because of a common ancestor
analogous structures
structures that have the same function because of adaptations to similar environments, not common ancestors
vestigial structures
remnants of structues that served important functions in the organism's ancestors
comparative embryology
reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms
molecular homology
genes that are shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor
biogeography
comparison of the geographical distribution of similar animals
microevolution
changes in one gene pool in a population
macroevolution
development of an entirely new species
population
a group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area
gene pool
all the alleles for all the genes in a population
balanced polymorphism
presences of two or more phenotypically different forms of a trait in a single population of a species
mutation
provides new alleles in a gene pool
sexual reproduction
provides variatino due to shuffling of alleles during meiosis and fertilization
outbreeding
mating of organisms that aren't closely related
diploidy
2N condition maintains and shelters a hidden pool of alleles that may not be suitable for present conditions but that could be advantageous if conditions change
heterozygous superiority
the hybrid state is selected for because it has a greater survival rate and reproductive success
frequency dependant selection
works to decrease the frequency of the more common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less common phenotypes
evolutionary neutral traits
no selective value and scientists don't know why they have stayed in the human population
cline
graded variation in the phenotype of an organism
genetic drift
change in the gene pool due to chance
bottleneck effect
natural disasters reduce the size of a population resulting in a loss of genetic variation
founder effect
a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area
gene flow
movement of alleles into or out of a population
non-random mating
individuals choose their mate for a specific reason
natural selection
individuals better adapted to an environment survive and have more offspring to pass their genes to
p (in hardy-weinberg)
dominatnt allele
q (in hardy-weinberg)
recessive allele
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of a species or group of species
divergent evolution
populations become isolated and evolve into a new species
convergent evolution
unrelated species occupy the sme environment and show similar adaptations
parallel evolution
two related species that have made similar evolutinoary adaptations after their divergence from a common ancestor
coevolution
reciprocal evolutinoary adaptations of two interacting species
adaptive radiation
emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor
systematics
branch of biology that focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships
taxon
a taxonomic unit at any given level of classification
cladistics
type of systematics in which a common descent is the primary criteria used to classify
cladogram
a diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics of species
clade
group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants
phylogenic tree
a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutinoary history of a group of organisms
species
population whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
speciation
development of a new species
allopatric speciation
separation caused by geographic isolation
sympatric speciation
separation occurs in the same geographic area
polyploidy
a condition where a cell has more than two complete sets of chromosomes
habitat isolation
two organisms live in the same habitat but rarely come in contact with each other
behavioral isolation
organism's behaviors do not attract one another
temporal isolation
isolated by time
reproductive isolation
unable to mate because they are anatomically incompatible
prezygotic barriers
prevent mating
postzygotic barriers
prevent fertile offspring once mating has occured
gradualism
organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually in a linear or branching fashion
punctuated equilibrium
a species goes through little or no morphological change followed by brief periods of sudden change
adaptive radiation
emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor
allopatric model
a new species arises in a different place and expands its range competing with or replacing the ancestral species after it has become extinct