Environmental science practice quiz ch. 7
Terms in this set (10)
At what point in history did the world population pass its first billion? What factors restricted population before that time, and what factors contributed to growth after that point?
2) Until the Middle Ages human populations were held in check by diseases, famines, and wars, but as these things decreased the growth rate of the population grew.
2) After 1804, continued advances in medicine/technology, birth control, changes in culture, and changes in warfare allowed populations to grow even further
How might growing populations be beneficial in solving development problems?
because we can use our technology, ingenuity, and enterprise to extend the world carrying capacity and overcome problems, so the more people the better
Why do some economists consider human resources more important than natural resources in determining the future of a country?
They say that continued economic and technological growth can both feed the world's billions and enrich everyone enough to end the population explosion voluntarily.
Where will most population growth occur in the next century? What conditions contribute to rapid population growth in some countries?
It will mostly occur in poor regions like India and parts of Africa, because they have a higher infant mortality rate and thus are more likely to have more kids--but as conditions improve culture won't catch up as quickly. Also, women have less control over their lives.
Define 'crude birth rate'. 'total fertility rate', 'crude death rate', and 'zero population growth'.
1) Crude birth rate = # births in a year/1000 people
2) Total fertility rate = # children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
3) Zero population growth = occurs when births plus immigration in a population equals deaths plus emigration
What is the difference between life expectancy and life span?
1) Life span = oldest age a species in known to survive
2) Life expectancy = average age a newborn infant can expect to attain
What is dependency ratio, and how might it affect the United States in the future?
Dependency ration = the number of nonworking compared to working individuals in a population. If there are too many older people depending on the younger population, this can bankrupt economies.
What pressures or interests make people want or not want to have babies?
1) Higher education and personal freedom for women
2) Economic depression
3) High costs of raising a child
1) Children are a source of pleasure, pride, and comfort
2) Children take care of the elderly
3) High infant mortality rates
4) Women don't have control over their lives
5) Culture or religion
Describe the conditions that lead to a demographic transition.
Improved living conditions usually lead to falling death rates and birth rates
Describe some choices in modern birth control.
Sterilization, IUD, oral contraceptive, hormones, male condom, spone and spermicide, female condom, diaphragm together with spermicide, abstinence during fertile periods, morning-after-pill, spermicide alone
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