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PSYCH 208 Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (107)
A fertilized egg is also known as a(n)
All of the following are associated with doula-assisted pregnancies EXCEPT
fewer people in the delivery room
________ are defined as units of hereditary information.
Cigarette smoking by pregnant women has been associated with a higher incidence of
sudden infant death syndrome
During implantation, the zygote attaches to the wall of the
During the birth process, the baby's body secretes large quantities of ________ to help the baby withstand the stress of birth
adrenaline and noradrenaline
Fertilization usually occurs in the
If the delivery takes too long, the baby can develop
Implantation takes place about ________ after conception
10 to 14 days
In the 17th week of her pregnancy, Penny Wills was asked to take the triple screen test, as she had a family history of birth defects. Her doctor assured her that the test would take very little time and posed no risks to her baby. Which of the following prenatal diagnostic tests has the doctor asked her to undergo?
maternal blood screening
Juanita is having a normal pregnancy and the fetus is developing well. However, Juanita has recently picked up an infection and bacteria have accumulated in her blood stream. We know that most likely,
the placental wall will block the bacteria from entering the fetus
Keesha is experiencing a lot of pain during her labor. Which of the following medications is her doctor likely to use in order to numb Keesha's body from the waist down?
Oxytocin is a hormone that
promotes uterine contractions
The birth process occurs in ________ stages
The evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce is known as
The second stage of birth begins when the
baby's head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal
The theory of evolution by natural selection was first introduced by
Though low, what is the primary risk associated with amniocentesis?
Viability (the potential to survive outside the womb) occurs
at the very end of the second trimester
Which of the following genetic disorders are caused by the presence of an extra chromosome?
Klinefelter syndrome and Down syndrome
Which of the following is caused by faulty genetic imprinting?
Which of the following is TRUE regarding teratogens?
Practically every fetus is exposed to at least some teratogens
Which of the following prenatal diagnostic tests uses a sample of the placenta to detect genetic and chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus?
chorionic villus sampling
Myelination is the process of encasing axons with fat cells
According to Erik Erikson, the first year of life is characterized by the ________ stage of development
trust versus mistrust
A child, who has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood, is called a(n) ________ child
A child who is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences is referred to as a(n) ________ child.
A neonatal startle response that occurs in reaction to a sudden, intense noise or movement is called the ________ reflex.
Assimilation occurs when children
use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
The brain goes through extensive growth from conception to birth and after birth, through infancy and later.
A fetus cannot hear in the womb
Infants of 0 to 2 years of age sleep an average of ________ hours a day
According to Piaget, the sensorimotor stage of development has 6 substages
Ryan and Alicia were both given the same size piece of pizza for dinner. Ryan's mother cut his piece in two so it was easier for him to eat. Alicia began crying and said that Ryan got more pizza than she did. This is an example of:
________ is a condition that occurs when infants stop breathing, usually during the night, and die abruptly without an apparent cause
Sudden infant death syndrome
________ is defined as the decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus
John Bowlby, on the basis of ethological evidence, suggested that
both infants and their primary caregivers are biologically predisposed to form attachments
Parents who elicit talk about emotions with their toddlers have toddlers who
are more likely to share and be helpful.
2 year old Jane says, "eat now" to her mother. This is an example of:
By the end of the second year, long-term memories is more substantial and reliable.
Securely attached babies have caregivers who are ________ to their signals.
When infants are stressed, they show better biological recovery from the stressors when their caregivers
Which of the following conditions is MOST likely to incite a basic cry?
Infants are not able to use a social smile until about 8 months of age.
Which of the following situations testifies that the infant has developed a sense of object permanence?
The infant searches for an interesting object when it disappears
Richard's (9 months old) mother needs to leave him with a babysitter while she goes to the doctors. Richard cries and cries for the babysitter and has a hard time calming down. After some time he is able to play but is not fully happy until his mother returns. This is an example of:
With reference to the Strange Situation, ________ babies often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing away
With reference to the Strange Situation, when the mother of a securely attached baby leaves the room, the baby
may protest mildly
With reference to Piaget's stages of development, a reversible mental operation with real objects is a(n)________ operation
With reference to Piaget's preoperational stage, mentally adding and subtracting numbers is an example of
Which sports injury in youth football has many people increasingly concerned?
Which of the following is TRUE with regard to television viewing in early childhood?
Television programs can be used to model prosocial behavior, motivate children about education, and give them information about the world at large.
Which of the following gross motor skills is expected from a 3-and-a-half-year-old child?
stepping on footprint patterns
What are the three common types of stepfamily structure?
step father (custodial mother)
stepmother (custodial father)
Blended complex (both parents include their children into step family)
What are the most common academic areas in which children with a learning disability have problems?
The three common areas in which children with a learning disability have problems is reading, writing, and math.
Dsylexia- reading and spelling
Dysgraphia- handwriting difficulties
Dyscalculia- math/ number difficulty
The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is a term for
the range of tasks that can be learned only with the assistance of adults
"That teddy bear is looking at me funny," said Vanessa. This statement is an example of
Rejected children are
infrequently nominated as someone's best friend and are actively disliked by their peers.
________ refers to global evaluations of the self; it is also called self-worth or self-image.
Peer influences are likely to
exert greater pressure for boys to conform to a traditional male role than for girls to conform to a traditional female role.
List some differences between night terrors and nightmares
Nightmare are frightening dreams and night terrors are listed as sudden asrousal, intense fear, and usually physiological reactions. Night terrors are more intense than a nightmare, night terrors are fear
Jane's teacher has haphazardly placed eight sticks of different lengths on the table. He asks Jane to putthe sticks in order from shortest to longest. Through this test, Jane's teacher is testing her ability of
In Lawrence Kohlberg's preconventional reasoning stage, good and bad are interpreted in terms of
external rewards and punishments
How does parents' divorce affect children?
Majority of children don't have significant adjustment problems, more problems are seen in academics and externalized problems, lower self-esteem, less socially responsible, higher risk of dropping out, less competent, sexually active at earlier age, higher risk of substance use and deliquent behaviors
Growth hormone deficiency is the absence or deficiency of growth hormones produced by the ________ gland to stimulate the body to grow
Erikson's psychological stage associated with early childhood is the stage of
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's fourth stage, industry versus inferiority, appears during
middle and late childhood
During the infant's second year, the growth rate
begins to slow down
Dora is a 6-year-old girl. Which of the following motor skills is she expected to have?
tying shoes and fastening clothes
Describe the child-centered kindergarten approach to education.
child centered approach involves the whole child by concidering the Childs physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development and adressing the Childs needs, interests, and learning styles. Stresses the process of learning rather than what is learned, play is important, and a variety of activities are used.
Describe a few criteria that characterize gifted children.
Children that are above average (gifted) have a higher IQ of 130 or higher and are superior talent for something. They excel in information processing, and it is the product of both heredity and environment, normally socially isolated in the classroom
Boys are usually stronger than girls because of their greater number of
Children with autism struggle with theory of mind. Which of the following was NOT listed as additional reasons these children might struggle?
delays in creativity
As one moves through school and into one's career, demands on sustained attention
Aerobic exercise, mindfulness, and computerized training targeting working memory have all beenused to improve children's
According to Sigmund Freud, the ________ is the moral element of the personality that children form when they identify with their parents and internalize their standards of right and wrong.
A 10-year-old child suffering from ADHD is likely to find which of the following tasks difficult?
Who proposed the "storm and stress" view of adolescence?
G. Stanley Hall
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the top-dog phenomenon?
It refers to the shock of moving from the top position in a previous school to the lowest position in the next school
Which of the following has a greater influence on the life trajectory of adolescents today than it likely would have several decades ago?
lifestyle options through technology
Which of Marcia's identity statuses may be more adaptive to an adolescent or emerging adult in East Asia than in the United States?
Which adolescent is MOST likely to engage in moderate to vigorous exercise?
Norm, an adolescent boy, on a weekday
What is working memory? What are the developmental changes in working memory during adolescence?
Working memory is a kind of "mental workbench" where people manipulate and assemble information to help them make decisions, solve problems, and comprehend written and spoken language. Cognitive control: focusing attention, reducing interfering thoughts, and being cognitively flexible, Decision making: generating more options, examining perspectives, anticipating consequences, and judging sources (strongly influenced by emotional state and social context)
-Critical thinking: thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating evidence, and metacognition
- Top dog phenomenon: moving from the top position to the lowest position in the student hierarchy
What is adolescent egocentrism? What are its key components?
Adolescent egocentrism refers to the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents. The two types of social thinking include:
Imaginary audience, the feeling that one is the center of attention and is on stage
Personal fable, a sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility or invulnerability
What are the gender differences regarding body image among adolescents?
The gender differences regarding body image among adolescents include, Girls are less happy with their bodies, and boys are more satisfied with their bodie
The socioemotional changes associated with adolescence involve
increased mood swings.
The endocrine system's role in puberty involves the interaction of the
hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the gonads
The career and work path the person wants to follow defines the individual's ________ identity
List at least four causes of juvenile delinquency.
-Early-onset antisocial behavior (before age 11) is associated with more negative outcomes and is more likely to persist
-Family environment of poverty and child maltreatment
-Norms of many lower-SES peer groups and gangs
-Living in a high-crime-rate neighborhood
-Low parental control, family discord, and inconsistent and inappropriate discipline
Jolena is an early-maturing sixth-grade female. She is
probably more satisfied with her body image than her later-maturing peers
________ is Piaget's formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and deduce their implications.
In the ________ stage, individuals are no longer limited to actual experiences as anchors for thought.
In Erik Erikson's (1968) theory, as part of their search for ________, adolescents begin to grapple in more sophisticated, logical ways with such questions as "Why am I on this planet?" "Is there really a God or higher spiritual being?" and "What really are my religious views?"
In a school, a group of people who are good at sports is referred to as "jocks." In this case, "jocks" is an example of a
Identity ________ is the status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment
Idealistic beliefs about future possibilities are characteristic of the ________ stage of cognitive development
How does the suicidal behavior of female adolescents differ from that of male adolescents?
The differences between female and male suicidal behavior is
Females often use pills or cut wrists
Males use more lethal means, such as guns
Explain the role of parents and peers in preventing adolescent drug abuse
Parents and Peers dependability in preventing adolescent include: Positive relationships with parents and others can reduce adolescents' drug use, and negative parental interactions can lead to an increase in adolescent drinking and smoking.
Peer relations influence whether adolescents engage in substance use. Increased independence and time spent with peers; includes more conflict with parents
Explain the role of melatonin in sleep regulation in older adolescents
Older teens stay up later and get less sleep
Sleep-inducing hormone melatonin is secreted later in older adolescents.
Getting inadequate sleep in adolescence has negative cognitive and emotional consequences: More emotional and peer-related problems, higher anxiety, and higher levels of suicidal ideation
Shortfall deficits of melatonin are usually made up on weekend, Later school start times have been linked with improvements in sleep, alertness, mood, and health. Older adolescents need melatonin to function adequelty and be able to perform better in comparison to younger children
Service learning is a form of education promoting social responsibility and service to community
Erik Erikson's fifth developmental stage, which individuals experience during adolescence, is
identity versus identity confusion
Puberty: a brain-neuroendocrine process of rapid physical changes in early adolescence.
-Endocrine system's role in puberty involves the interaction of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and sex glands—also called gonads, the testes in males, ovaries in females.
Controlling attention, reducing interfering thoughts, and being cognitively flexible are all elements of
By about age 15, adolescent females have a rate of depression that is more than twice that of adolescent males. List a few reasons for this gender difference
Females experience and express depression more than males because they are less happy with their bodies, females experience hormone changes with a lot of ups and downs that come with having their Menarche: girl's first menstruation. These hormones can fluctuate a women's feelings, and thinking
Brady's friends are all going bungee jumping off the old bridge in town. If Brady has low inhibitory control, he will be more likely to
go along with his friends and make the jump.
Adolescents who do not successfully resolve their identity crisis suffer what Erikson calls identity
According to research, which individual is likely to delay his or her identity exploration the longest?
Antonio from Italy
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