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General Ecology week 14
Terms in this set (20)
The figure shows the CO2 uptake by various leaf layers in a tropical forest. Leaf layer 1, at the top of the canopy, has the highest net rates of photosynthesis and layer 15 has the lowest net rates. What principles of production explain this pattern?
Gross carbon uptake is highest in top leaves relative to metabolic losses because upper leaves are in full sunlight.
Chemical energy derived from the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis and chemosynthesis is known as _______ production.
The total amount of photosynthesis is referred to as
gross primary production (GPP).
Which of the following would likely have the greatest proportion of productivity going into its own respiration?
A large tree in the Brazilian tropical rainforest
Which statement accurately describes a way plants allocate carbon that is not used in respiration?
Plants may allocate carbon as a defense against herbivory.
In which biome would you most likely see the greatest percentage of NPP devoted to roots?
Tundra in Alaska
In his experiments in lakes in Ontario, Canada, Schindler found evidence for phosphorus limitation of NPP. A massive increase in _______ was responsible for the increase of NPP in response to phosphorus addition.
The global pattern of Net Primary Production (NPP) in the figure shows two peaks in the northern hemisphere—one at 45oN latitude and one at 0o N latitude. These two peaks are primarily due to which climatic factors that control NPP?
The wettest terrestrial ecosystems globally are found at 45oN latitude and one at 0o N latitude due to global circulation patterns.
Heterotrophs are categorized by what they eat. A detritivore eats
dead organic material.
Not all consumed matter is incorporated into the biomass of a heterotroph. A heterotroph's growth is determined by its _______ secondary production, which equals ingestion minus _______.
net; egestion and respiration
Which trophic level generates the most dead organic material in most ecosystems?
A leaf from a deciduous forest that falls into a large stream and is consumed by insects would be a source of _______ energy for the stream ecosystem.
All other things being equal, herbivores generally must consume _______ food than carnivores in order to meet their nutritional needs. The reason is that plant material, per gram of carbon, contains _______ nitrogen than animal material does.
Chemical weathering of minerals in rocks is an important source of nutrients because it
releases soluble forms of nutrients.
Which sequence best describes the order of soil horizons in well-developed soil from top to bottom?
Organic matter, mineral nutrients, clay, bedrock
Which statement correctly describes the role of nitrogen fixation in the nutrient cycle?
N2 is taken up by certain bacteria that can change it into chemically available forms usable by plants.
Decomposition of organic matter with a C:N ratio _______ than 25:1 (the optimal ratio for microbial growth) would result in a net release of nutrients into the soil. The reason is that microbial growth in this situation would be more limited by the _______ supply than by the _______ supply.
less; energy; nitrogen
By a process known as _______, certain chemoautotrophic bacteria transform ammonia and ammonium into _______, which tends to be more available to plants than other forms of nitrogen.
Which statement best describes the order of the nitrogen cycle?
Plant proteins are converted to N2 through decomposition > N2 is converted to NH4+ through nitrogen fixation > NH4+ is converted back to proteins in plants
In the 1950s, anthropogenic eutrophication of Lake Washington was caused by
phosphates from wastewater.
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