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233 terms

Pharmacology Test 2 multiple choice

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Phenytoin
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits Na, high protein binding, gingival hyperplasia
Carbamazepine
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits Na, autometabolism, agranulocytosis, Liver function test required
Oxcarbazepine
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits Na, Ca; enhances K, Stevens-Johnson
Phenobarbital
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, modulates GABAa receptors, decreased glutamate
Gabapentin
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Decreases Ca, increases GABA, no drug interactions
Tiagabine
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Gaba uptake inhibitor, high protein binding, hepatic metabolism
Levetiracetam
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits delayed K, N-type Ca, negative mod of GABAa, Free of drug-drug interactions
Felbamate
Partial and Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, Inhibits NMDA, enhances GABA, Aplastic anemia, Liver function test required
Ethosuximide
Absence Seizures, Inhibits T-type Ca
Valproic acid/ Sodium Valproate
Variety of seizure types, Inhibits Na, T-type Ca, GABA transaminase, Idiosyncratic hepatoxicity (liver function test required)
Lamotrigine
Variety of seizure types, Inhibits Na, glutamate release, Partial, Absence, Lennox-Gastaut, Can cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Topiramate
Variety of seizure types, Inhibits Na; enhances GABA, K; AMPA/KA antagonist, Can inhibit carbonic anhydrase, Can cause metabolic acidosis
Zonisamide
Variety of seizure types, Also for migraine, manic-depression, neuropathic pain, Inhibits Na, T-type Ca, weak carbonic anhydrase
iv Lorazepam
Status epilepticus
iv Diazepam
Status epilepticus
iv Fosphenytoin
Status epilepticus
Vigabatrin
Infantile spasms
Corticotropin
Infantile spasms
Prednisone
Infantile spasms
Trazodone
Antidepressants, Inhibit reuptake of 5-HT, block post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptors, causes priapism
Nefazodone
Antidepressants, Inhibit reuptake of 5-HT, block post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptors, inhibits P-450
Bupropion
Antidepressants, Inhibits DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake also smoking cessation, OCD; Seizures
Mirtazapine
Antidepressants, α2 antagonist (increased NE and 5-HT), H1 receptor antagonist, causes appetite stimulation
Fluoxetine
Antidepressants, SSRIs (can inhibit P-450s, anorgasmia) can cause akathisia
Sertraline
Antidepressants, SSRIs (can inhibit P-450s, anorgasmia), weakly blocks DA uptake, few drug-drug interactions
Venlafaxine
Antidepressants, SNRIs, can increase blood pressure
Duloxetine
Antidepressants, SNRIs
Amitriptyline
Antidepressants, TCAs, also neuropathic pain, migraines; Blocks 5-HT then NE. Also blocks D2
Nortriptyline
Antidepressants, TCAs; Secondary TCA
Imipramine
Antidepressants, TCAs, also pediatric nocturnal enuresis; Blocks 5-HT then NE
Desipramine
Antidepressants, TCAs, inhibits NE uptake; Secondary TCA
Tranylcypromine
Antidepressants, MAOI (nonselective)—Atypical depression
Phenelzine
Antidepressants, MAOI (nonselective)—Atypical depression
Isocarboxazid
Antidepressants, MAOI (nonselective)—Atypical depression
Selegiline
Antidepressants, MAOI type b
Lithium
Antidepressants, for Bipolar
Valproic acid
Antidepressants, for Bipolar
Carbamazepine
Antidepressants, for Bipolar
Lamotrigine
Antidepressants, for Bipolar
Terbutaline
Asthma, Bronchodilators, β-adrenergic agonists
Albuterol
Asthma, Bronchodilators, β-adrenergic agonists
Salmeterol
Asthma, Bronchodilators, β-adrenergic agonists
Ipratropium
Asthma, Bronchodilators, Muscarinic antagonists
Theophylline
Asthma, Bronchodilators, Methylxanthines
Aminophylline
Asthma, Bronchodilators, Methylxanthines
Beclomethasone
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids
Fluticasone
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids
Budesonide
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids
Prednisone
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Corticosteroids
Zileuton
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Leukotriene pathway modifiers
Zafirlukast
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Leukotriene pathway modifiers
Montelukast
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Leukotriene pathway modifiers
Cromolyn
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Release inhibitors
Nedocromil
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, Release inhibitors
Omalizumab
Asthma, Anti-inflammatory agents, anti-IgE therapy
Phenobarbital
Sedative-Hypnotics, Barbiturates
Pentobarbital
Sedative-Hypnotics, Barbiturates
Thiopental
Sedative-Hypnotics, Barbiturates
Chlordiazepoxide
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), alcohol withdrawal
Diazepam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), anticonvulsant, alcohol withdrawal, anxiolytic
Flurazepam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), sleep aid
Lorazepam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), phase II metabolism, alcohol withdrawal, anxiolytic
Temazapam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), phase II metabolism, sleep aid
Alprazolam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), anxiolytic, short half life
Midazolam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), anterograde amnesia
Flunitrazepam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), Rohypnol
Clonazepam
Sedative-Hypnotics, Benzodiazepines (GABAa receptors), Anticonvulsant, Spasmolytic
Zaleplon
Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), bind to BZ1 subtype of benzodiazepine sites
Zolpidem
Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), bind to BZ1 subtype of benzodiazepine sites
Eszopiclone
Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), bind to BZ1 subtype of benzodiazepine sites
Flumazenil
Sedative-Hypnotics, Non-benzodiazepines (z-drugs), benzodiazepine site antagonist
Chloral Hydrate
Sedative-Hypnotics, Older sedative/Hypnotics
Meprobamate
Sedative-Hypnotics, Older sedative/Hypnotics
Melatonin
Sedative-Hypnotics, Melatonin receptor agonists, serotonin derivative synthesized and secrected by the pineal gland
Ramelteon
Sedative-Hypnotics, Melatonin receptor agonists, MT1 (sleepiness) and MT2 (circadian rhythm)
Buspirone
Sedative-Hypnotics, Serotonergic Agents, agonist at 5-HT1a
Diphenhydramine
Sedative-Hypnotics, Over the counter sleep aids, Antihistamines
Doxylamine
Sedative-Hypnotics, Over the counter sleep aids, Antihistamines
Baclofen
Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, GABAb receptor agonist
Tizanidine
Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, central α2 adrenergic receptor agonist
Dantrolene
Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, decreased release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum
Chlorpromazine
Typical Antipsychotics
Haloperidol
Typical Antipsychotics
Risperidone
Atypical antipsychotics, Elevation of prolacting, extrapyramidal side effects
Clozapine
Atypical antipsychotics, Agranulocytosis, improves cognitive function
Olanzapine
Atypical antipsychotics, Similar to cloxapine, binds 5-HT2a and D4, improves cognitive function
Quetiapine
Atypical antipsychotics, Binds 5-HT2a more than D2, antagonizes H1, α1, α2
Ziprasidone
Atypical antipsychotics, Binds 5-HT2a more than D2, antagonizes H1, α1, α3
Aripiprazole
Antipsychotics; Dopamine system stabilizer, Partial agonist at D2 and 5HT1a serotonin receptors, antagonist 5HT2a
Hydromorphone
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, more potent than morphine
Methadone
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, treatment for heroin addiction
Meperidine
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, less potent and shorter duration than morphine
Fentanyl
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, very potent, short duration
Oxycodone
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, weak like codeine, orally as analgesic for mild pain
Loperamide
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, highly potent meperidine analog, controls diarrhea, no CNS penetration
Naloxone
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, antagonizes all opiates
Naltrexone
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, longer acting antagonist
Buprenorphine
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, partial agonist at opiate receptors, antagonizes morphine and heroin
Dextromethorphan
Opiates, Synthetic Drugs, cough suppressant
L-dopa
Parkinson's treatments, direct precursor of dopamine
Carbiodopa
Parkinson's treatments, peripheral L-aromatic decarboxylase inhibitor
Simemet
Parkinson's treatments, 1 Carbidopa: 10 L-dopa
Selegiline
Parkinson's treatments, MOA B inhibitors, does not cause hypertensive crisis; Deprenyl
Rasagiline
Parkinson's treatments, MOA B inhibitors
Tolcapone
Parkinson's treatments, COMT Inhibitors (prevent L-dopa breakdown in peripheral tissues), may cause liver damage
Entacapone
Parkinson's treatments, COMT Inhibitors (prevent L-dopa breakdown in peripheral tissues)
Bromocriptine
Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)
Pergolide
Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)
Ropinirole
Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)
Pramipexole
Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine agonists (can cause nausea, hypotension, dyskinesia, hallucinations, delusions)
Benztropine
Parkinson's treatments, Centrally acting antimuscarinic agents (block muscarinics within the striatum)
Trihexyphenidyl
Parkinson's treatments, Centrally acting antimuscarinic agents (block muscarinics within the striatum)
Amantadine
Parkinson's treatments, Dopamine releasing agent
Donepezil
Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Rivastigmine
Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Galantamine
Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Tacrine
Alzheimer's treatment, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Memantine
Alzheimer's treatment, NMDA receptor agonist
Methotrexate
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppressive agents
Gold preparations
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppresive agents; Depresses macrophage activity
Gold sodium thiomalate
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppresive agents; Depresses macrophage activity
Leflunomide
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), Immunosuppresive agents
Etanercept
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), TNF-alpha blockers
Infliximab
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) TNF-alpha blockers
Abatacept
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), others; Reduces production of TNF-alpha
Rituximab
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), others; Depletion of CD20 positive B cells
Anakinra
Inflammation, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs); IL-1 receptor antagonist
Aspirin
NSAIDs
Ibuprofen
NSAIDs
Naproxen
NSAIDs
Salicylate
NSAIDs
Celecoxib
NSAIDs
Acetaminophen
Inflammation, Others
Glucocorticoids
Inflammation, Others
Indomethacin
Gout, Anti-inflammatory, NSAID
Colchicine
Gout, Anti-inflammatory, binds to tubulin in microtubules
Phenylbutazone
Gout, Anti-inflammatory
Allopurinol
Gout, Decreased urate production (inhibit xanthine oxidase)
Febuxostat
Gout, Decreased urate production (inhibit xanthine oxidase)
Probenecid
Gout, Uricosuric drugs
Sulfinpyrazone
Gout, Uricosuric drugs
Cyclosporine
Immunomodulators, Calcineurin inhibitors, inhibits activation and proliferation of T-cells through IL-2
Tacrolimus
Immunomodulators, Calcineurin inhibitors, binds FKBP-12 more than cyclophilin
Pimecrolimus
Immunomodulators, Calcineurin inhibitors, binds FKBP-12 and inhibits calcineurin
Sirolimus
Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response, does not inhibit calcineurin
Mycophenolate mofetil
Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response
Leflunomide
Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response, inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
Thalidomide
Immunomodulators, Regulators of Cytokine response
Daclizumab
Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, blocks IL-2, prevents T-cell activation, transplant rejection
Basiliximab
Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, blocks IL-2, prevents T-cell activation, transplant rejection
Muromonab
Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, transplant rejection; works against epsilon portion of CD3
Infliximab
Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, anti TNFα for Crohns, UC, RA, ankylosing spondylitis
Etanercept
Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, soaks up free TNF
Abatacept
Immunomodulators, Monoclonal antibodies used to treat inflammatory disorders, binds CD80, 86, blocking their binding to CD28; for RA
Azathioprine
Immunomodulators, Purine analog
Methotrexate
Immunomodulators, Autoimmune diseases
Glatiramer
Immunomodulators, Similar to myelin basic protein, used for MS
Anakinra
Immunomodulators, Cytokine antagonist
Imiquimod
Immunomodulators, cytokines and growth factors
Colony stimulating factor eopetin alfa
Immunomodulators, cytokines and growth factors
Bupropion
Reduces amphetamine withdrawal symptoms
Bromocriptine
Amphetamine treatment, DA receptor agonist
Desipramine
Amphetamine treatment, TCA
Cocaine
Stimulants, CNS sympathomimetics
Amphetamines
Stimulants, CNS sympathomimetics
Phenethylamine
Stimulants, CNS sympathomimetics; Phenethylamines; Decongestant, weight loss
Kathionine
Stimulants, CNS sympathomimetics
Methylphenidate
Stimulants, ADHD treatments, Ritalin
Atomoxetine
Stimulants, ADHD treatments
Modafinil
Stimulants, Narcolepsy treatments
Gamma hydroxybutyrate
Stimulants, Narcolepsy treatments, also a date-rape drug
Dronabinol
Marijuana analog
Rimonabant
Marijuana analog
Bismuth subsalicylate
GI drugs, Mucosal protective agents, Pepto-Bismol
Cimetidine
GI drugs, H2-receptor antagonists
Ranitidine
GI drugs, H2-receptor antagonists
Omeprazole
GI drugs, Proton pump inhibitors
Esomeprazole
GI drugs, Proton pump inhibitors
Rabeprazole
GI drugs, Proton pump inhibitors
Misoprostol
GI drugs, Prostaglandin E1 analog
Metoclopramide
GI drugs, Prokinetic agent (D2 antagonist, 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT-4 agonist)
Metoclopramide
GI drugs, Antiemetics, D2 receptor antagonists
Chlorpromazine
GI drugs, Antiemetics, D2 receptor antagonists
Prochlorperazine
GI drugs, Antiemetics, D2 receptor antagonists
Promethazine
GI drugs, Antiemetics, D2 receptor antagonists
Droperidol
GI drugs, Antiemetics, D2 receptor antagonists, postoperative nausea and vomiting; can cause hypotension, fatal cardiac arrhythmias
Ondansetron
GI drugs, Antiemetics, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist
Granisetron
GI drugs, Antiemetics, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist
Palonsetron
GI drugs, Antiemetics, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist
Aprepitant
GI drugs, Antiemetics, Substance P antagonist
Dimenhydrinate
GI drugs, Antiemetics, H1 antihistamine
Nabilone
GI drugs, Antiemetics, Cannabinoid
Sulfasalazine
GI drugs, IBD
Mesalamine
GI drugs, IBD
Diphenoxylate
GI drugs, Antidiarrheal
Loperamide
GI drugs, Antidiarrheal, opioid
Bismuth subsalicylate
GI drugs, Antidiarrheal
Alosetron
GI drugs, Antidiarrheal, 5-HT3 antagonist, For IBS whose primary manifestation is diarrhea; for women
Tegaserod
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners
Lubiprostone
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners
Bran
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Bulk laxatives
Psyllium preparations
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Bulk laxatives
Methylcellulose
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Bulk laxatives
Milk of magnesia
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Osmotically active agents
Sodium phosphate/sodium biphosphate
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Osmotically active agents
Glycerin
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Osmotically active agents
Lactulose
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Osmotically active agents
Polyethylene glycol
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Osmotically active agents
Ascorbic acid
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Osmotically active agents
Bisacodyl
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Stimulant laxatives
Cascara sagrada
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Stimulant laxatives
Senna
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Stimulant laxatives
Castor oil
GI drugs, Laxatives and stool softeners, Stimulant laxatives
Dimenhydrinate
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Antihistamines, Dramamine, Vertigo
Diphenhydramine
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Antihistamines, Benadryl, over the counter sleep aid
Meclizine
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Antihistamines, Antivert, Vertigo
Promethazine
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Antihistamines, Phenergan, Vertigo
Fexofenadine
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Antihistamines, Allegra
Loratadine
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Antihistamines, Claritin
Sumatriptan
Autocoids, Biogenic Amines, Triptans, Imirex
Fomepizole
Alcohol treatment; Inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase
Phenylpropanolamine
Stimulants, CNS sympathomimetics; Phenethylamines; Decongestant, weight loss
Disulfiram
Alcohol treatment; inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase
Naltrexone
Alcohol treatment; opiate antagonist; reduces reinforcing effects of ethanol
Acamprosate
Alcohol treatment; analog of GABA, impairs NMDA receptor function; reduces alcohol cravings
Propranolol
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines
Methysergide
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines; Ergot alkaloid
Amitriptyline
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines
Verapamil
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines; Calcium channel blocker
Valproic acid
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines
Topiramate
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines
Gabapentin
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines
Ibuprofen
Prophylactic Treatment for Migraines