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Arts and Humanities
Absolute Monarchs in World History
Terms in this set (50)
What is an Absolute Monarch?
A king or queen who believes they rule by DIVINE RIGHT (the will of God) and have UNLIMITED power over everything in their Kingdom
What allowed monarchs to consolidate their power and increase the size of their kingdom?
the decline of feudalism
How did absolute monarchs expand their power?
They regulated religious worship and social gatherings; increased their size of courts; created new government bureaucracies to control economic life; kept the influence of aristocracy and governmental bodies, like parliment down.
Who was King Phillip II of Spain and what did he do?
He was a Spanish Monarch and devout Catholic who wanted to expand his empire beyond the holdings of Spain.
What gave Spain a global empire?
When the Portugese king died without an heir, King Phillip II claimed it for Spain, along with the Portugese holdings in Africa, India, and East Indies.
Why was King Phillip II considered a "Defender of Faith"?
He sent 250 ships to defeat the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire where Spain defeated and won. He launched a campaign (battle) to defeat Prostestant England where Spain lost.
Who was King Louis XIV of France?
He became king when he was only 5 yrs old, so Cardinal Mazarin was responsible for leading France until Louis was old enough.
How did King Louis XIV srengthen the government?
He raised taxes and the people were not happy so they revolted by storming into the King's palace in Paris and threatened the young King's life. He never forgot the fear or anger of the rebels. He wanted to become so strong that they could not threaten him again.
Describe Louis's XIV of France rise to power?
He took over the government at 23 after the death of Cardinal Mazarin. He excluded the nobles from his councils and increased the power of his Intendants by collecting taxes and administering justice, who had to communicate regularily with him.
Who were the intendants in France?
They were local officials who collected taxes and administered justice who communicated to King Louis XIV of France regularily.
What were Louis XIV economic policies?
He tried to increase France's power through the economy.
Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert?
He was appointed the Minister of Finance in France by Louis XIV.
What were Colbert's beliefs?
He believed in mercantilism, exporting more than it imports. He wanted France to manufacture everything it needed instead of relying on imports; to be self-sufficient.
What is mercantilism?
the belief that a country exports more than it imports.
How did Colbert encourage manufacturing?
he gave money
What did Colbert do to help France become self-sufficient?
He placed a high tariff on imported goods. He encouraged people to migrate to the French colonies in Canada.
What kind of lifestyle did King Louis XIV have?
He spent huge amounts of money to keep up with his luxurious lifestyle. He built the Palance of Versailles 11 miles outside of Paris with massive courtyards and gardens with statues of Louis everywhere to remind the people of his power.
Who was required to live with King Louis XIV of France in his palace?
His nobles, who fought for privilege of attending to him as he dressed in the morning. This made the difference between success or failure as a noble.
What is King Louis XIV of France legacy?
He tried to expand his power toward the end of his reign but was unsuccessful, which only resulted in debt and war. He left debt and turmoil for his heirs to come.
Who was Fredrick the Great of Prussia and how did he follow in the foosteps of his father?
He was an absolute monarch in Prussia who created a strong military state.
How did Fredrick the Great of Prussia differ from his father?
He believed that a ruler should act as a father to his people.
Who was Fredrick the Great fight with for territory?
What was the 7 Year War during the reign of Fredrick the Great of Prussia?
It was a war between Prussia and Britain against Austria, France, and Russia. It was a European conflict that spread to include India and North America.
Who was Peter the Great of Russia?
A 6'5" tall Russian Czar who attempted to advance Russia by adopting western ideas. He was a descendant of Ivan the Terrible.
What was Russia like when Peter the Great of Russia came to power?
Russia was a semi-feudal system with Boyars and serfs. They adopted the Eastern Orthodox religion, which set them apart from Western Europe.
What happened to Peter the Great on his vacation west?
Iin 1697 he went to visit western Europe and wanted to learn about the customs and industrial techniques of the west. On his trip to the Netherlands, he wore plain clothes to look like the average worker to keep his identity secret where he worked as a ship's carpenter. He also visited England and Austria.
What did Peter the Great believe that Russia needed to do to compete with the rest of the world?
Russia needed to westernize itself.
How did Peter the Great westernize Russia? What were some of his reforms?
He brought the Russian Orthodox Church in under his control and abolished the office of Patriarch, the head of the Church.
He set up a Holy Synod group to run the Church.
He reduced the power of the wealthy landowners; recruited lower ranking people and promoted them to higher offices, which made them loyal to the Czar.
How did Peter the Great modernize his army?
By hiring European soldiers to train his army. Being a soldier became a lifetime occupation.
What is a staple of the Russian diet?
What did Peter the Great set up and handle himself?
He set up Russia's first newspaper and edited it himself.
What did Peter the Great do for women?
He raised the status of women.
What did Peter the Great force the nobles to wear?
What country did Russia fight to gain access to the Baltic coast?
What new city did Peter the Great build and forced many nobles and serfs to live?
When Charles I came into power, who had been in a power struggle?
English Parliament and the English Monarchy
What led to the English War?
English Parliment was disolved several times by Charles I because he needed money and they would not give it to him.
Who supported the Parliament, the Roundheads?
Who supported Charles I?
Royalists, or the Cavaliers.
Who was the general that the Puritans felt could win the English War?
Who defeated the Royalists and took King Charles I prisoner?
What happened to King Charles I and the monarchy ?
He was put on trial and sentenanced to death. This was the first time that a monarch was publicly put on trial and executed.
What happened after King Charles I death?
In 1658, his government collapsed and Parliament was reestablished.
Who became king after the death of King Charles I ?
King Charles II, which became known as the Restoration.
What was The Glorious Revolution?
When Charles II dies, James II became king. Parliament was afraid that he would return England to the Catholic Church so Jame's daughter Mary and her husband William was to overthrow him and there was not bloodshed.
What did William and Mary establish?
They established a constitutional monarchy.
What is a constitutional monarchy?
The Monarch was limited by laws, ie the English Bill of Rights.
What were the political changes and limits to royal power with the English Bill of Rights?
They could not get rid of Parliament laws.
They could not levy taxes without consent of Parliament.
They could not sensor speech in Parliament.
They could not punish a citizen for bringing grievances against the King.
What were the political changes in the Cabinet System?
After 1688, no British Monarch could rule without the consent of Parliament.
The Cabinet was made up of government officials called minsters and acted in the monarch's name.
The cabinet became a link between monarch and majority.
The cabinet became the center of power and policymaking.
The leader of the majority party in Parliament heads up the cabinet and is called the prime minister, which is still used today.
How do rule by devine right and rule by an enlightened despot differ?
Monarchs who felt they ruled by devine right believed that God had given them the right to rule as they chose; enlightened despots tried to make life better for commoners.
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