Where does the term "Jim Crow" originate from?
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The court case that marked the beginning of the civil rights movement and overturned Plessy v Ferguson:Brown vs. Board of Ed. of 1954What was the significance of Brown v Board of Education?integrated public schools "with all deliberate speed"In what ways did whites resist desegregation?lots of riots and protests, closed schools rather than let them enter, white parents pulled kids from schools and put them into seg(segregation) academies(private school) so that they didn't have to be in public school with blacks.In addition to using the courts to counter oppression, blacks also used the tactic of...civil disobedienceWhat are some examples of civil disobedience?Rosa Parks refusing to get off bus, Montgomery bus boycott-381 daysWho was the young woman who came before Rosa Parks and was arrested for sitting in the white section of the bus?Claudette ColvinWhat are the 4 issues of contention between Anglo-Americans and the Mexican government in the early 1800s?contention over slavery(Mexican government didn't allow it), religious differences(Mexico=catholic, Americans=protestant), expulsion of illegal American immigrants, and the feeling that they were being ruled from so far away (Mexico City)The Republic of Texas survives as an independent republic for how many years?10 years (1836-1845)hispanic vs. latinohispanic refers to language and culture, refers to geographic location.Did Mexico formally recognize the Republic of Texas?No, still saw it as a part of MexicoWhat was the key cause of the Mexican American War?It was over the annexation of the Republic of Texas, Mexico declared war when US annexed it (1845)Who won the war and what is the treaty that ended the Mexican American War?Treaty of Guadalupe Jidalgo, US won in 1848.What did the US get under this treaty? What did Mexico get under this treaty?Mexico received 15 million dollars and citizenship to Mexicans living in new US. US received half of Mexico (the mutilation)The program agreed to by the US and Mexico that allowed Mexican workers to temporarily immigrate to the US and work as laborers:Bracero programThe period in the 1950s in which hundreds of thousands of illegal and legal immigrants were sent back to MexicoOperation WetbackOperation wetback was modeled after which similar efforts in the 1930s, which rounded up legal and illegal immigrants and American born citizens and sent them back to Mexico?Repatriations of the 1930sWhat was the key push factor that led to the first wave of Cuban migration to the US?Cuban Revolution-1959(rise of communism in Cuba)What segment of Cuban society immigrated during the first wave and why?Wealthy people b/c they wanted to keep high status, and because they had finances and resources to get to US.How did the second wave of Cuban immigrants to the US differ from the first wave?Were stigmatized as drug addicts, convicts. Were lower class, didn't have resources to leave earlier (1980 vs 1930s), also were darker in skin color. Overall treated much worseWhat was the policy for Cubans immigrating to the US under Clinton and Bush Jr. but ended under Obama?Wet foot dry foot policy-if they made it to land they could stay, if they didn't they had to go backwhy was the first Asian ethnic group allowed to enter the US in large numbers?Chinese-mining and railroadsWhat are 3 underlying fears with regard to the "yellow peril"?would steal jobs-economic threat of cheap Asian labor, would steal white women-miscegenation, threat of losing white way of lifeAnti-Asian sentiment in the US came in 4 forms, what were they?Negative stereotypes, violence against Asian-Americans (murders, lynchings), white resistance-boycotts and discrimination in hiring and services, anti-Asian legislationWhat are 3 types of anti-Asian legislation?Anti-immigration laws, anti-miscegenation, anti-citizenship lawsThe legislation which curbed new Japanese immigration, except Japanese women and children: -Informal agreement made between the US & Japan agreed to not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration -Japan: agreed to stop granting visas for to enter the US [Japanese women and children allowed] -US:agreed to not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration Significantly lowered Japanese immigration!Gentleman's Agreement of 1907The first act to restrict immigration of a specific nationality to the US: Meant to stop Chinese immigration for 10 years (actually 60 years!) Japanese immigrants filled their placeChinese Exclusion Act of 1882The act which halted all Asian immigration to the US, and ended the Gentleman's Agreement?Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924The first year that Asian Americans were eligible for naturalized US citizenship:1952What is the significance of Ozawa v. US (1922)?Trying to prove citizenship by saying his skin was white, but courts deemed that Japanese weren't white, so they can't become citizens. Not Caucasian even though he has white skinWhat is the significance of Thind v US (1923)?Trying to prove citizenship by saying that even though his skin isn't white Indians have Caucasian ancestryThe act that penalized American born women for marrying Asian men:1922 Cable Act, ended in 1931What was the penalty of the 1922 Cable Act?White women who married Asian men lost their US citizenship.What fraction of Japanese ancestry was enough to be placed in a US internment camp during WW2?1/16What portion of those detained in internment camps were US citizens?2/3What was the immigration act that opened up immigration to Asians?1965 Immigration and Naturalization ActThe 1965 immigration act was originally meant to do what?It was meant to redress past injustices to Southern and Eastern Europeans2 preference stipulations of the 1965 immigration act:immigrants with special stipulations, family reunificationThe term that refers to the out-migration of skill workers from their home country to the US:brain drainAccording to model minority, Asian successes were attributed to what?Their ability to assimilate to the American culture.What are 2 problems with the model minority stereotype?Misleading statistics (lots of variation within ethnic groups that fall under the category "Asian"), ignores selectivity of immigration i.e. "cream of the crop" (most motivated, have the most resources, are most skilled/educated)brancero program included ______________________ & ____________________________hard labor jobs in agriculture and railroad constructionMariel, Jimmy CarterPort of Mariel ---> Key West 6 1⁄2 months in 1980 125,000 CubansHispanic Americans TodayLargest ethnic minority in US (16% in 2010); This is up from 13% in 2000 Fastest growing minority group (4 x) Concentrated in SouthwestThe number of states in which Hispanics are the largest minority group.22The first Chinese immigrants came to America during the ________________________________.1849 gold rushWhite workers were paid $35/month Chinese workers were paid $___/month25Japanese immigrants came to U.S. to work as low- wage ______________ laborersagriculturalEarly Asian immigration was restricted to _____ ________ creating "bachelor societies"Men onlya phrase that originated in the 19th century referring to the perceived threat of Asian immigrants.Yellow PerilAnti-Chinese sentiment & violence towards Asians was often due to tensions over _______jobsStereotypes of the "Chinaman"Uneducated Intellectually inferior Lazy Poor Devious, scheming Immoral (liars, gamblers, drunkards) Dirty, filthy (rats) Disease-ridden Heathens___ states banned intermarriage between Whites & Asians16Three main stereotypes of Japaneseanimals and murderous and predatorsExecutive Order 9066112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes and businesses -Affected those living in CA, OR, WA, AZ -Signed by Roosevelt President Franklin on February 19, 1942Several things to keep in mind about internment camps-2/3rds were American CITIZENS born in the US -A variation of the one drop rule invoked -Removal was racially motivated -Many lost everything (property, businesses, homes, jobs, possessions)South Africa: ________ race relations Brazil: _______ race relationsrigid, fluidPeople of color during apartheidblack, asian, coloredSeparate Amenities Act (1953)Forced segregation in all public amenities, public buildings, and public transport -Goal: to eliminate contact between whites & non-whites: "Europeans Only" and "Non-Europeans Only" signs -The act stated that facilities provided for different races need NOT be equaltypes of apartheidPetty and Grand PETTY -Segregation of whites & non- whites in all areas of life GRAND -An attempt to partition South Africa into separate states for different racial groupsProhibition of Mixed Marriages Act (1949)Prohibited marriages between whites & non- whites No law prohibiting non- whites marrying each other 1st apartheid law!Immorality Act (1950)-Prohibited all sexual relations between whites & non-whites. -Most couples found guilty were sent to prison! -Non-whites were given harsher sentences than whites.Group Areas Act (1950)Forced physical separation between races by creating different residential areas for different races. -Led to forced removals of people living in "wrong" areas.Why were townships located near major cities?This way blacks could live near the cities where their labor was needed, but wouldn't live next to whites in major citiesPass Laws Act (1952)Made it compulsory for all black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a"passbook."True or false - It was a CRIMINAL OFFENSE to be unable to produce a pass to the police.True By law, any black person over the age of 16 had to be able to show their passbook to any official that askedDistrict 6, Cape TownDistrict 6 was a racially diverse area in Cape Town In 1966, it was declared a "whites only" area The community was bulldozed to the ground 60,000 non-whites were forcibly removed in the 1970sPopulation & Registration Act (1950)Required that each person be racially classified as white, black, colored, Asian Everyone's race was recorded in a nationalregistry Classification was based on appearance & social acceptance (& in later years, ancestry)Sharpeville Massacre (1960)Blacks burn their passbooks as a protest Police fire on unarmed crowd 69 people killed (including women & children)Soweto Uprising (1976)3-10,000 students protest over having to study in Afrikaans Police open fire & 176 (up to 700) students were shot or killed in the panicked stampede3 justifications of apartheid-Whites are biologically & culturally superior to non- whites & therefore white domination is essential -Separation of white & non-white is necessary to protect whites from the cultural pollution of inferior groups -It is the duty of whites to prevent racial friction by keeping the races separate.