41 terms

English rulers/laws (pre-American revolution)

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What French nobleman, conquered England
King William 1
1066
King William I conquered England
Duke William I of Normandy
a French nobleman, became K William I by conquering England
King William I achievement
He organized England into a society of feudalism
feudalism
king rules through a hierarchy of noble landowners (largely French in origin)
1166
Assizes of Clarendon issued by King Henry II
Assizes of Clarendon
formed a system of royal judges to control the nobility and formed a link between the King and the commoners
Assizes of Clarendon developed into the
common law
What was the Common Law
Basis of law in America. Judges resolve cases by following precedent
What 2 major events happen in 1264?
King Edward I (1) convened the first Parliament of England (2) acknowledged the right of Parliament to approve taxes and enact statutes.
The Parliament of England was composed of who?
the nobility [lords] and elected representatives of the commoners.
Statute
enactment of an authority that governs/command/prohibit something, or declare policy (law made by legislative bodies not from court decided case law)
How was Parliament organized?
Into 2 Houses: Lords and Commons
Parliament statutes required the approval of what?
Both the house and the King
Who had the right to vote?
Representatives in the House of Commons and all adult male property owners.
Parliament's power was dependant on what?
On the King's ability to mobilize men and money without its consent. (Royal control of trade and colonies was an important factor)
When was Parliament largely a rubber stamp of royal authority?
In the 16th century [Henry VIII & Elizabeth I]
Parliament changes of the 1600s
1) grew more assertive as Puritans became voters and members. 2) had conflicts with the Kings over politics and religion.
What caused the English Civil War?
King Charles I attempted to abolish Parliament, but popular resistance led by Puritans made the country ungovernable. During the new elections, the House of Commons had a Puritan majority
When was Charles I beheaded?
1649
When did the Commonwealth of England became a dictatorship and under who?
1649-1660 Oliver Cromwell.
Restoration of Monarchy, date/king:
1660/King Charles II
King Charles II accomplishments:
restored to power with Parliament and allowed freedom of religion for Protestants (Catholics remained persecuted)
Who succeeded Charles II/when?
brother Duke of York became King James II / 1685
What was King James II problems?
he had converted to the Catholicism while living in France, and his accession divided the country.
1688-1689
King James II deposed for his religion, replaced by Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange [already Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic].
Glorious Revolution:
English Bill of Rights which established Parliament Supremacy, although King William III retained executive authority
Glorious Revolution:
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary overthrow James II for Protestantism. Led to a constitutional monarchy and the English Bill of Rights
1702:
1702: . (King William III's sister-in-law)
Queen Anne's reign left executive power in the hands of leaders supported by Parliament
Kingdom of Great Britain formed by union of England and Scotland, date:
1707
Hanoverian Succession:
1714 the throne passes to King George I (George of Hanover, Queen Anne's closest living Protestant cousin) he did not speak English.
Cabinet or Ministry
committee given executive power by King George I
Robert Walpole
1721-1742 First Lord of the Treasury (for King George I) "first prime minister."
Walpole's political party in Britain was called what?
Whigs
Whigs ideology was:
"liberty" rooted in the Glorious Revolution.
American colonies was formed under legal authority granted by what?
Royal Charter.
Royal Charters did what for the Colonist?
1) guaranteed the "rights of Englishmen" for subjects of the King [both British-born and naturalized].
2) common law rights (right to trial by jury)
3) right to vote for male property holders (each colony had an elected Colonial Assembly)
Colonial Assemblies accumulated what power?
(1) they had the sole right to approve taxes
(2)local statutes for the individual colony
(3) controlled the colonial militia, which could be mobilized to act alone to fight Indians, control slaves or maintain order; or to assist regular British troops.
Property ownership was far more common in the colonies than in Britain itself - to what affect?
the voter base was far deeper and more "democratic."
In American, Whig ideology became:
a defense of broad popular rights and wide access to political power
In Britain, Whig ideology was:
linked to the protection of the aristocratic elite