208 terms

Anatomy and Physiology

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Name the levels of organization in order from biggest to smallest
Organ Systems, Organs, Tissues, Cells, Cellular Components, and Chemical
What level of organization was studied first and by whom?
Organs; Greeks
Who is Hippocrates?
"Father of Western Medicine" and the earliest known physician
Who is Plato?
Philosopher and Aristotle's mentor who established the first college
Who is Aristotle?
One of the first anatomy students who was the first to use animals to dissect as a learning tool about anatomy and described arteries and veins
Who is Herophilus and Erasistratus?
They were the first to contribute to the knowledge of physiology through vivisections on human criminals
Vivisection
live dissections of the human body
Who is Galen?
He did vivisections on animals, wrote the first anatomy textbook, and described the function of arteries and veins
What is the biggest invention in the dark ages and what level of organization did it allow us to explore?
The light microscope; Cells and tissues
What invented device led us to be able to view inside the cell, or the cellular components?
Electron Microscope
Histology
The study of tissues
Cytology
The study of cells
What are the two types of electron microscopes?
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
What invention led us to be able to view hard structures inside the body?
X-Ray
What two inventions use radiation?
X-Ray and CT Scan
What two inventions do not use radiation?
Ultrasounds and MRI's
What are the three body planes, the cut of them, and the view of them?
Sagittal; left to right; Sag/side view
Transverse; horizontal; cross (top and bottom) view
Front "Coronal"; front to back; coronal view
Superior/Inferior
Top/Bottom
Anterior/Posterior
Front/Back
Cranial/Claudal
Head/Tail
Dorsal/Ventral
Anatomical Back/Belly
Medial/Lateral
Midline/Side
Superficial/Deep
Outer/Inner
Proximal/Distal
Closest to the point of attachment/Farthest point of attachment
Cranial/Caudal in Humans
Superior/Inferior
Cranial Caudal in Dogs
Anterior/Posterior
Dorsal/Ventral in Humans
Posterior/Anterior
Dorsal/Ventral in Dogs
Superior/Inferior
Bilateral
Symmetrical left and right; right to left arm or right to left lung
The ankle is proximal/distal to the knee?
Distal
The shoulder is proximal/distal to the wrist?
Proximal
The nose is superior/inferior to the mouth?
Superior
The vertebrae is anterior/posterior to the sternum?
Posterior
The lungs are _________ to the heart.
Bilateral
The heart is _________ to the lungs.
Medial
Name several bilateral in the body.
Arms, legs, kidneys, ears, eyes, and lungs
The elbow is proximal/distal to the wrist?
Proximal
The elbow is proximal/distal to the shoulder?
Distal
What are the two body cavities?
Dorsal Body Cavity and Ventral Body Cavity
What are the two cavities that make up the Dorsal Body Cavity?
Cranial Cavity (Brain) and Spinal Cavity (spinal cord)
What are the two cavities that make up the Ventral Body Cavity?
Thorasic Cavity (superior to the diaphragm) and Abdomin-Pelvic Cavity (inferior to the diaphragm)
The imaginary line that separates abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity runs from __________ to the ______________.
Sacrum; pubic symphysis
Membranes
Tissues that line surfaces
Serous Membrane
Lined surfaces that do not open to the outside
Visceral Pleura
Membrane that covers the lungs
Parietal Pleura
Membrane that lines the thorasic cavity wall and lungs
Visceral Pericardium
Membrane that covers the surface of the heart
Parietal Pericardium
Membrane that lines the surface of the heart
Visceral Peritoneum
Membrane that lines organs and abdominal walls
Parietal Peritoneum
Membrane that lines organs and abdominal walls
Cell
Basic structural and functional unit of the body
What are the three basic cell structures found in cells?
Plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm/cytoskeleton, and organelles
Characteristics of the plasma membrane?
Separates the inside of the cell from the outside, controls what enters and leaves the cell, and its very thin
What is a depiction of the phospholipid bilayer and plasma proteins?
Fluid Mosaic Model
What are two types of plasma membrane proteins?
Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins (IPMP) and Peripheral Plasma Membrane Proteins (PPMP)
Water loving
Hydrophilic
Water hating
Hydrophobic
What part of the phospholipids are hydrophilic?
Phospholipid heads
What part of the phospholipids are hydrophobic?
Phospholipid tails
Where are IPMPs found?
The are embedded across the plasma membrane; channels
Where are PPMPs found?
They float between the inside and outside surface of the plasma membrane; the "taxis"
What determines if a substance achieves access into and out of the cell?
The size, shape change, has a carrier molecule, and if it is lipid soluble
Which PMP can act as receptors and enzymes?
Both IPMPs and PPMPs
Which PMP achieves cell to cell contact?
IPMPs
What are the three cell to cell contacts of IPMPs?
Tight Junctions, Gap Junctions, and Desmosomes
Tight Junctions
IPMP that crosses two cell membranes
Gap Junctions
IPMPs that create channels through two membranes, which then allows cell to cell communication
Desmosomes
Tight junctions with microfilaments for reinforcement
What type of cell to cell contact gives each cell its own unique "finger print" or identity?
Cell identity
What is the main purpose of the Fluid Mosaic Model?
Reveals that the plasma membrane is selectively permeable
Cytoskeleton
Contains microtubules and microfilaments, which makes them dynamic (the ability to change shape)
Cytosol
Thick semi-transport jelly that contains suspended particles in the cell
Endocytosis
Bringing into the cell
What are the two types of endocytosis?
Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
Cell eating or engulfing
Pinocytosis
Cell drinking
Exocytosis
Taking out of the cell
What organelle houses DNA?
Nucleus
What organelle contains mRNA?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?
Smooth and Rough
What organelle is a protein synthesizer, or protein maker?
Ribosomes
What organelle is used for the specialization of proteins?
Golgi Body
What organelle contains enzymes to help break down old proteins?
Lysosomes
What organelle makes and stores ATP and contains mtDNA?
"Power house of the cell"; Mitochondria
What organelle helps cell division, aka mitosis and meiosis?
Centrioles
What does electrochemical equilibrium equal?
Cell at rest
Resting Potential
The inside of the cell has an overall negative charge and the outside has an overall positive charge
What are the elements inside the cell and the quantity?
Na+ Low
K+ High
Ca2+ Low
Cl- Low
Pr- Hight
What are the elements outside of the cell and the quantity?
Na+ High
K+ Low
Ca2+ High
Cl- High
Pr- Low
Passive Transport
Transports substances with the concentration gradient without ATP needed
Active Transport
Transports substances against the concentration gradient using ATP
What are the four types of Passive Transport?
Diffusion, Osmosis, Bulk Flow, and Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion
Substances moving from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration
Osmosis
Water moving from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration
Bulk Flow
The movement of substances from a high pressure to a low pressure
Facilitated Diffusion
Faster diffusion rate with the aid of a transport protein
What are the three types of active transport?
Bulk Transport/Vesicular Transport, Primary Active Transport, and Secondary Active Transport
Bulk Transport/Vesicular Transport
Process of endocytosis and exocytosis
Primary Active Transport
Uses a transport protein to move substances against the concentration gradient
What is an example of Primary Active Transport?
Sodium/Potassium ATPase Pump
Secondary Active Transport
Other substances sneak into or out of the cell against the concentration gradient via transport proteins
What are the two types of Secondary Active Transport?
Cotransport/Symport and Counter Transport/Antiport
What direction do substances in Cotransport/Symport go?
Substances go the same direction
What direction do substances in counter tranpsort/antiport go?
Substances go the opposite direction
Tissues
Roots of cells that have similar embryonic origin and function together to perform a specialized task
Histology
The study of tissues
What are the four types of tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous
What are the functions of Epithelia Tissue?
They cover body surfaces, line body cavities and ducts, and form glands
What are the functions of Connective Tissue?
They protect and support the body and its organs, bind organs together, and stores energy
What are the functions of Muscle Tissue?
They allow for movement through the active generation of force
What are the functions of Nervous Tissue?
They initiate, transmit, and interpret impulses that coordinate the body
Simple
Single layer of cells
Stratified
Two or more layers of cells
Concentration Gradient
Unequal amount of substances (ie. Ions) or pressure on opposite sides of plasma membrane
Pseudostratified
Appears to have two or more layers of cells, but in reality, it only has a single layer of cells
Transitional
Single layer of cells that is capable of expanding
Squamous
Scale like shape of cell
Cuboidal
Square like shape
Columnar
Column like shape
Where is simple squamous found?
Kidney glomeruli, capillaries, Alveoli, and Serosa
Where is simple cuboidal found?
Kidney tubules, ducts, small glands, and ovaries
Where is simple columnar found?
Digestive tract, uterine ducts, and uterus
Where is stratified squamous found?
Kerotanized (hard coating)=skin, unkerotanized= oral cavity and anal lining
Where is stratified cuboidal found?
Large glands, but rare
Where is stratified columnar found?
Male urethra and pharynx, but rare
Where is pseudostratified columnar found?
Upper respiratory tract (bronchi), nasal cavity, and the trachea
Where is transitional found?
Urinary bladder
What is the function of simple squamous?
Diffusion and filtration
What is the function of simple cuboidal?
Secretion and absorption
What is the function of simple columnar?
Absorption and secretion
What is the function of stratified squamous?
Protection
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar?
Secretion
What is the function of transitional?
Expansion
What are the three characteristics of epithelial tissue cells?
They are packed closely together and have very little extracellular space, have specialized cell to cell contact with tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes, and there polarity is distal and proximal end, have no blood supply, high regeneration rate (mitogenic), and specialization
Epithelia tissue is always attached to connective tissue via what?
Basement membranes
What are the two types of basement membranes?
Basal Lamina and Reticular Lamina
Basal Lamina
Glycoproteins from the epithelial tissue
Reticular Lamina
Glycoproteins from the connective tissue
Mitogenic
Undergoes mitosis often
What are the two specializations of epithelial tissue?
Cilia- hair like projections (in columnar shape) found in the nasal cavity and oviduct
Microvilli-finger like projections found in the small intestine
Glands
one or more cells that make or secrete a product
What are the two types of glands?
Endocrine glands and Exocrine glands
Endocrine glands
They produce hormones and secrete directly into the blood stream via exocytosis
Exocrine glands
They secrete products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities
Structurally, glands are?
Unicellular or Multicellular
What is an example of unicellular glands?
Mucin glands; produce mucous, goblet cells
What is an example of multicellular glands?
Alveolar (oil glands) or Tubular (found in stomach and instestines
Holocrine gland
Secretes the whole cell (oil glands)
Apocrine gland
Secretes a part or portion of the cell (milk glands)
Merocrine "eccrine" gland
secretes fluid like substances (sweat glands)
What are the four types of connective tissue?
Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, and blood
What are the four characteristics of connective tissue?
Same origin from mesenchyme, lots of extracellular space, matrix, highly vascularized (except cartilage)
What are the functions of connective tissues?
They bind and support (tendons and ligaments), protection (skeletal system=bone), insulation (adipose=fat), and transportation (blood transport vehicle of the body)
What are the two types of connective tissue proper?
Loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue
Loose connective tissue
They have many cell types and all fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
Fibroblast
secretes the fibers and give rise to fibrocytes (wound repair)
Mast cells
Histamine, inflammatory response
Apipocytes
Fat cells; insulation, cushion, and energy storage
Macrophages
come from (given rise from) monocytes
Plasma cells
immune response- produces all antibodies
Collagen fibers
Thick and white
Elastic fibers
Yellow and branched
Reticular fibers
So thin and look like stitches
What are the three types of loose connective tissue?
Areolar loose connective tissue, adipose loose connective tissue, and reticular loose connective tissue
Areolar loose connective tissue
Acts like a sponge to soak up fluid-gets rid of swelling
Adipose loose connective tissue
Nutrient and energy storage (fat)-White fat and brown fat
Reticular loose connective tissue
Support lymphoid organs (lymphnodes and spleen)
Dense connective tissue
mostly has collagen fibers in a gel-matrix
What are the three types of dense connective tissue?
Regular dense connective tissue, irregular dense connective tissue, and elastic dense connective tissue
Regular dense connective tissue
fibers are parallel to one another, "forms ropes"
Ligaments
Attaches bone to bone
Tendons
Attaches bone to muscle
Aponeurosis
Attaches muscle to muscle
Irregular dense connective tissue
Capsules form sheaths around structures; Organs, joints, and skin's dermis
Elastic dense connective tissue
Predominately elastic fibers for stretching and retracting; vocal cords, walls of large arteries (aorta), and flavum ligamentum
Flavum ligamentum
Connects vertebrae bones together
What are the characteristics of cartilage?
Matrix is semi-solid, not very vascularized, and chondroblast
Chondroblast
secretes the matrix and the fibers in cartilage and then matures to chondrocytes
Chondrocytes
They can no longer secrete the matrix and perform regular cell functions
What are the three types of cartilage?
Hyalin, fibrocartilage, and elastic
Hyalin Cartilage
"Gristle" the most abundant cartilage in the body
Where is hyalin found?
The nose, larynx, trachea rings, the end of long bones (arms and legs), and at the end of the lower ribs
Fibrocartilage
They are shock absorbers of the body
Where is fibrocartilage found?
Inter-vertebral discs
Elastic Cartilage
It is rubbery and pliable
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Ears and the epiglottis (the flapping things over the larynx)
What are the characteristics of bone?
The matrix is solid (calcium and phosphate salts), highly vascularized, and osteoblasts
Osteoblasts
Makes the bone matrix and then matures into osteocytes
Osteon
The fundamental unit of compact bone
Lamella
Bone matrix rings
Lacuna
Space containing osteocytes
Central canal (Haversian canal)
Tunnel running through the middle of the osteon
Canaliculli
Microscopic canals for oxygen and nutrient delivery
What are the thing plates spongy bone contain?
Trabecula
Blood
Has a matrix consisting of plasma
What are the three types of blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Red blood cells
Erthryocytes; oxygen and carbon dioxide transport
White blood cells
leukocytes; all nucleated
Platelets
Thronbocytes; blood clotting
What are the five types of white blood cells?
Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophil, and Basophil
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Skeletal muscle tissue
striated and voluntary; 1:1 muscle cell to neural ratio
Cardiac muscle tissue
All:1 cardiac cell to neural cell ratio; only found in the heart; occurs in sheets an stuck together via intercalated discs-gap junction
Smooth muscle tissue
1:1 or All:1 ratio to neural cells; found in hollow organs (stomach); cells can occur as one or in sheets; unstriated and involuntary
Nervous tissue
Initiates, transmits, and coordinates impulses through the body
Nerve cells are called _______.
Neurons
What is the part of the neuron that innervates some other type of cell?
Axonal Bronches and Terminals
Neuroglia (Glial Cells)
They support cells for nervous tissue. They do not initiate, transmit, or coordinate nervous impulses