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AP Euro Midterm

Terms in this set (45)

"Peter the Great was allowed to engage several English engineers into his service, as he had done in Holland; but, over and above engineers, he engaged likewise some mathematicians, which he would not so easily have found in Amsterdam. Ferguson, a Scotchman, an excellent geometrician, entered into his service, and was the first person who brought arithmetic into use in the exchequer in Russia, where before that time, they made use only of the Tartarian method of reckoning, with balls strung upon a wire [an abacus]....He took with him two young students from a mathematical school, and this was the beginning of the marine academy.... Peter made himself proficient in astronomy, [and] he perfectly well understood the motions of the heavenly bodies, as well as the laws of gravitation, by which they are directed. This force, now so evidently demonstrated, and before the time of the great Newton so little known, by which all the planets gravitate towards each other, and which retain them in their orbits, had already become familiar to a sovereign of Russia, while other countries amused themselves with imaginary theories, and, in Galileo's nation, one set of ignorant persons ordered others, as ignorant, to believe the earth to be immovable."
-Voltaire, History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great, 1759, discussing Tsar Peter I's Grand Embassy, which traveled to western Europe at the end of the seventeenth century

Voltaire's discussion of Peter the Great's acceptance of Newtonian physics is best understood as a critique of which of the following?
"Peter the Great was allowed to engage several English engineers into his service, as he had done in Holland; but, over and above engineers, he engaged likewise some mathematicians, which he would not so easily have found in Amsterdam. Ferguson, a Scotchman, an excellent geometrician, entered into his service, and was the first person who brought arithmetic into use in the exchequer in Russia, where before that time, they made use only of the Tartarian method of reckoning, with balls strung upon a wire [an abacus]....He took with him two young students from a mathematical school, and this was the beginning of the marine academy.... Peter made himself proficient in astronomy, [and] he perfectly well understood the motions of the heavenly bodies, as well as the laws of gravitation, by which they are directed. This force, now so evidently demonstrated, and before the time of the great Newton so little known, by which all the planets gravitate towards each other, and which retain them in their orbits, had already become familiar to a sovereign of Russia, while other countries amused themselves with imaginary theories, and, in Galileo's nation, one set of ignorant persons ordered others, as ignorant, to believe the earth to be immovable."
-Voltaire, History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great, 1759, discussing Tsar Peter I's Grand Embassy, which traveled to western Europe at the end of the seventeenth century

Based on the passage and historical context, which of the following explains Peter the Great's motivation for visiting England and Holland?
"Peter the Great was allowed to engage several English engineers into his service, as he had done in Holland; but, over and above engineers, he engaged likewise some mathematicians, which he would not so easily have found in Amsterdam. Ferguson, a Scotchman, an excellent geometrician, entered into his service, and was the first person who brought arithmetic into use in the exchequer in Russia, where before that time, they made use only of the Tartarian method of reckoning, with balls strung upon a wire [an abacus]....He took with him two young students from a mathematical school, and this was the beginning of the marine academy.... Peter made himself proficient in astronomy, [and] he perfectly well understood the motions of the heavenly bodies, as well as the laws of gravitation, by which they are directed. This force, now so evidently demonstrated, and before the time of the great Newton so little known, by which all the planets gravitate towards each other, and which retain them in their orbits, had already become familiar to a sovereign of Russia, while other countries amused themselves with imaginary theories, and, in Galileo's nation, one set of ignorant persons ordered others, as ignorant, to believe the earth to be immovable."
-Voltaire, History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great, 1759, discussing Tsar Peter I's Grand Embassy, which traveled to western Europe at the end of the seventeenth century

Which of the following best explains the point of view toward Peter the Great that Voltaire expresses in the passage?

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