psych unit 1 part 1 and 2 launchpad quiz

Often, a result of a psychological study seems so obvious that critics challenge why the research was ever done. This phenomenon illustrates
a. intuition
b. hindsight bias
c. common sense
d. cognitive processing
e. critical thinking
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Terms in this set (52)
Which of the following is a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in research study? a. dependent variable b. random sample c.operational definiton d. independent variable e. control groupoperational definitionSamples lead to more accurate conclusions when they a. diverse in makeup b. are representative of the population under study c. consist of volunteer d. include 25 percent of the population under study e. omit atypical dataare representative of the population under studyA zero correlation a. indicates that there is no relationship between 2 variables b. proves that one factor could not have caused the second factor. c. results from a computational error. d. is dismissed by researchers as having no value. e. is more predictive than a -0.7 correlation.indicates that there is no relationship between 2 variablesFactors, other than an independent variable, that can have an effect in an experiment are called a. confounding variables a theory. inferential statistics. operational definitions. dependent variables.confounding variablesRandom assignment helps researchers control or hold constant factors that differ between control and experimental groups, except for the a. confounding variables independent variable. dependent variable. magnitude of the correlation. sample size.independant variableData with a relatively low standard deviation can best be described as having more a. validity b. generalizability c. fit a normal distribution d. have a lower standard deviation e. have a greater standard deviationhave a lower standard deviationExperimenters intend for laboratory environments to replicate real-world situations. be a simplified reality. discover data with limited generalizability separate basic and applied research. create confounds that can be systematically a simplified realityAnything that contributes to the results of a research study is called a experiment operational definition variable confounding variable correlationvariablePsychologists are interested in studying the effects of a wide range of behaviors and experiences; including the effects of brain damage, childhood behaviors and perceptions, traumatic experiences, and animal intelligence. What type of research method would be the more ethical way to study such variables? a. correlation b. naturalistic observation experiement case study surveycase studyWhy might researchers prefer using naturalistic observations when studying interesting variables? Naturalistic observation provides the best opportunity to determine cause and effect. Observations allow researchers to be anonymous which reduces their bias. Observations reduce likelihood that participants will act differently because they know they are being watched. Other methods are more costly than naturalistic observations. Naturalistic observations give better data than other types of research.Observations reduce likelihood that participants will act differently because they know they are being watched.How has the use of technology affected naturalistic observation studies? Technology enables people to observe details more closely. Researchers can analyze data more quickly using technology. Technology allows researchers to forego informed consent since people are using apps and smart phones anyway. People are acting more differently than ever because of technology. Using technology, researchers can track the behaviors, opinions, and locations of people in "real."Using technology, researchers can track the behaviors, opinions, and locations of people in "real."Often, people get "positive" and "negative" correlations confused. They think "positive" correlations mean the variables are related and "negative" correlations mean the variables are not related. But what do these terms really mean? "Positive" means the number is high; "negative" means the number is low. "Positive" means the variables are related in the same ways together; "negative" means the variables are related in opposite ways. "Positive" means the variables are strongly related; "negative" means the variables are only weakly related."Positive" means the results are obvious; "negative" means the results are counterintuitive. "Positive" mean good; "negative" means bad."Positive" means the variables are related in the same ways together; "negative" means the variables are related in opposite ways.The main reason why correlational studies cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect (causation) is that correlational studies are not as easy to read on a graph. correlational studies are usually unethical. the researcher does not manipulate any of the variables in a correlational study. correlational studies usually only have positive results, which makes them unreliable. correlational studies are too complicated.the researcher does not manipulate any of the variables in a correlational study.When you go for your driver's test, the police officer asks you to do a set of physical exercises and never asks you to drive. You still get your driver's license. If this actually happened, psychologists would say this type of driver's test has low what? confounding variables replication potential reliability validity experimental valuevalidityFrancis Bacon and John Locke helped form modern science by stressing the importance of remembering events that confirm our beliefs. experimentation and the tabula rasa. perceiving meaningful patterns in random events. rational decision making and intuition. the mind's amazing ability to generate ideas.experimentation and the tabula rasaPsychology today is best defined as the scientific study of psychological disorders. behavior. learning and memory. mental processes. behavior and mental processes.behavior and mental processes.The scientific aspect of psychology is most concerned with simplifying data for publication. accumulating more knowledge. a methodology that emphasizes explanation and evaluation. examining measurable behavior while excluding mental processes. results that cannot be challenged.a methodology that emphasizes explanation and evaluation.Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much LESS likely to focus on the study of: thinking. running. smiling. fighting. screaming.thinkingYou begin seeing a therapist to cope with a number of stressful life events. The therapist does not focus on your childhood or on any learned behaviors, but rather she emphasizes the importance of your need for love and acceptance. Which school of thought does she belong to? psychoanalytic psychology functionalism behaviorism cognitive psychology humanistic psychologyhumanistic psychologyStructuralists introduced which research method to identify the basic elements of the human mind? introspection behavior genetics spaced practice transference psychoanalysisintrospectionYour professor directs a child and adolescent clinic that specializes in shaping behavior through rewards and consequences. Which of the following branches of psychology does this clinic support? cognitive psychology behaviorism functionalism psychoanalysis humanistic psychologybehaviorismIn December of 1879, he created the very first psychology laboratory in Germany. Edward Titchener Francis Bacon Wilhelm Wundt John Locke John B. WatsonWilhelm WundtTitchener is to _______, as Freud is to psychoanalysis. cognitive psychology functionalism contemporary psychology structuralism humanistic psychologystructualismWatson is to _______________, as Rogers is to ___________________. cognitive psychology; neuroscience humanistic psychology; behaviorism behaviorism; humanistic psychology contemporary psychology; humanistic psychology humanistic psychology; psychoanalysisbehaviorism; humanistic psychologyIt is 1965, and Professor B.F. Skinner is lecturing in your introductory course. He defines psychology as "the scientific study of __________________." observable behavior mental life cognition mental events experimentsobservable behaviorWho was the functionalist who authored the textbook Principles of Psychology for the emerging discipline of psychology? John B. Watson William James Edward Titchener Wilhelm Wundt B.F. SkinnerWilliam Jamesf you were taking psychology prior to 1920, psychology was defined as "the science of __________________." observable events cognition good feelings observable behavior mental lifemental lifeWho was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology? Margaret Floy Washburn Mary Whiton Calkins Mamie Clark Rosalie Rayner Anna FreudWashburnIvan Pavlov pioneered the study of: perception. learning. mental illness. the unconscious. personality.learningResearchers today can use technology such as CAT scans and fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers ask their research participants to describe elements of their experiences (e.g., sensations, images, feelings) while undergoing the scans. This ___________ technique is similar to the methodology of ___________. free association; Watson functionalist; Skinner behaviorist; Calkins introspection; Titchener active listening; Freudintrospection; TitchenerA focus on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information is most relevant to the ____________ perspective. cognitive psychoanalysis behavioral evolutionary social-culturalcongitiveIs alcohol misuse biologically determined or culturally influenced? This debate is most relevant to the issue of: structuralism versus functionalism. psychoanalysis versus cognitive psychology. behavior versus mental processes. nature versus nurture. observation versus introspection.nature versus natureWhich of the following professions would most likely treat individuals with psychological disorders? cognitive psychologists and social psychologists clinical psychologists and psychiatrists counseling psychologists and psychometricians human factors psychologists and applied researchers personality psychologists and basic researchersclinical psychologists and psychiatristsWhich type of basic research psychologist is interested in improving learning? School Psychometric Social Educational cognitiveeducationalEmpiricism is the view that knowledge is predominantly derived from innate ideas. debates between scholars. animal spirits flowing within the body. experience.experienceThe school of psychology known as structuralism was interested in studying how to determine how emergent qualities arise from elemental factors. measure the unique attributes of unconscious processes. eliminate the bias of scientists who have preconceived notions of reality. isolate the underlying components of what they were studying. repeat research to find consistent results.isolate the underlying components of what they were studying.Which school of psychology stressed the adaptive value of consciousness? structuralism behaviorism functionalism Gestalt psychology psychoanalysisfunctionalPsychologists use different levels of analysis that offer complementary outlooks on various topics. This is best understood by using applied research. the psychometric approach. biopsychosocial approach. the medical model basic researchbiopsychosocial approachHumanistic psychology, which emphasizes human growth potential, was a reaction against structuralism and functionalism. structuralism and behaviorism. functionalism and psychoanalysis. psychoanalysis and behaviorism. the ideas of Pavlov and Piaget.psychoanalysis and behaviorismThe majority of clinical psychologists are likely to help select and train employees. prescribe drugs. treat emotional disorders. help people cope with challenges. analyze unconscious motives.treat emotional disordersAn ineffective technique when studying for an introductory psychology course is to evaluate evidence that supports claims in the text. avoid reading about alternative explanations. asses conclusions overlearn the material. rehearse the material in your own words.avoid reading about alternate explanationsWhich type of applied psychologist would study relationships between people and their working environments? Health Sports Neuropsychologist School Industrial/OrganizationalIndustrial/Organizational