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79 terms

a&p 1 practice test

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Organelles
Cells contain smaller structures called _____ that carry out their metabolic functions.
Negative Feedback
Many physiological processes are controlled by self-correcting _____ loops.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
_____ was the first to produce a microscope capable of viewing a single cell.
Opposable
Our thumbs are said to be _____ because we can cross our palms with them to touch our fingertips.
Sarcoma
Which term can be described as cancer of the bone, other connective tissue, or muscle?
Anaphase
Which term can be described as the phase of mitosis in which each centromere divides in two and chromatids separate from each other?
Endocrine
Any gland that has no duct and secretes its products directly into the blood is called an _____ gland.
Allele
Any of the alternative forms that a particular gene can take.
Contact Inhibition
_____ is the phenomenon in which cells stop dividing when they are in close contact with neighboring cells, thus preventing excessive tissue growth.
Genotype
The _____ is the combination of genes that a person has for a specific trait.
Allele
The alternative forms taken by a single cell are called its _____.
Haploid
A _____ cell is one that has half as many chromosomes as those cells with a complete chromosome set.
Carcinogen
Any environmental agent that causes cancer is called a/an _____.
Pinocytosis
Process of taking a droplet of extracellular fluid that occurs in all cells of the human body is known as _____.
Homologous
Two identical-looking chromosomes, each of which was inherited from a different parent, are called _____ chromosomes.
Metastasis
The spread of cancer from its original site in the body to new locations is called _____.
Cytoskeleton
Supportive framework of a cell composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules is known as _____.
Lysosome
Organelle that contains enzymes for intracellular digestion and programmed cell death is known as _____.
Hypotonic
A solution that is more dilute than cytoplasm and would cause a cell to swell with water is known as _____.
Microvilli
Structures found on the surface of a cell that is specialized for absorption are known as _____.
Glycocalyx
Cell surface coating involved in immune recognition, sperm-egg binding, and organ transplant compatibility is known as _____.
Apoptosis
_____ is a process in which cells destroy non-functional organelles.
Peroxisome
Organelle that detoxifies free radicals is known as _____.
Golgi Complex
Organelle that synthesizes carbohydrates and conjugated glycoproteins is known as _____.
Ligand
Molecule that binds to a protein on the surface of the plasma membrane is known as _____.
Phospholipid
The plasma membrane is composed mainly of protein and _____ molecules.
Voltage-gated Channels
Channel proteins that can open or close their pores in response to changes in voltage across the plasma membrane are called _____.
Concentration Gradient
One difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport is that facilitated diffusion moves substances down their _____, while active transport can move them up.
Selectively Permeable
The plasma membrane is said to be _____ because it allows some substances to pass through but excludes others.
Filtration
_____ is a process of membrane transport that depends on the hydrostatic pressure exerted on a fluid.
Antioxidant
A chemical that neutralizes free radicals is known as _____.
Oxidation
A type of chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy is known as _____.
Microtubules
Protein cylinders called _____ form the core of a cilium or flagellum, and form part of the cytoskeleton.
Peptide Bond
Type of bond that links amino acids together is known as _____.
Exothermic
Chemical reactions that release heat is known as _____.
Anabolism
The synthesis reactions of metabolism is known as _____.
K
The chemical symbol for potassium is _____.
Anaerobic Fermentation
Process that produces lactic acid in humans is known as _____.
Glycogen
_____ is a polysaccharide stored in human skeletal muscle cells and liver.
Cation
A positively charged ion is known as a(n) _____.
Electrolytes
Compounds that ionize in water and produce a solution that will conduct electricity are called _____.
Enzyme
A protein that functions as a biological catalyst is called a/an _____.
Catalyst
Any chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not consumed by it is called a/an _____.
Cellulose
Dietary fiber consists largely of the indigestible polysaccharide _____.
Free Energy
The amount of energy in a chemical that can do useful work is called its _____.
Hydrolysis
The opposite of a dehydration synthesis is a/an _____ reaction.
Scientific Method
The careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions.
Molecule
A _____ is any chemical composed of two or more atoms bonded together, whether the atoms are of the same or different elements.
Tissue
The grade of structure between cells and organs.
Receptor
Any structure specialized to detect a stimulus.
Organ
Composed of two or more tissues, working together to perform a specific function.
Theory
The statement or set of statements that summarize our present understanding of a phenomenon.
Positive Feedback
_____ is a process in which a physiological change triggers further change in the same direction.
Gross Anatomy
The study of structures that can be observed without magnification is called _____.
Control Group
A _____ group of individuals is as much like the treatment group as possible in every way except for the treatment being tested.
Homeostasis
_____ is the body's tendency to maintain stable internal conditions.
Metabolism
All chemical change in the body is collectively called _____.
Extracellular
All the material found outside the cells is called _____ material.
Ground Substance
All connective tissues consist of cells, fibers, and _____.
Basement Membrane
A simple epithelium is one in which every cell reaches the _____.
Dendrites
The cell body of a neuron usually has one axon and numerous _____ extending from it.
Hypertrophy
The growth of a tissue due to enlargement of its cells, but not involving the proaction of new cells, is called _____.
Serous
Glands that produce thin, watery secretions are called _____ glands.
Chondrocytes
The cartilage cells.
Fibrosis
The formation of scar tissue.
Mesoderm
The primary germ layer that gives rise to muscle and connective tissue.
Necrosis
The abnormal death of a tissue.
Bone (Osseous Tissue)
The connective tissue containing calcified matrix.
Regeneration
The replacement of damaged tissue with the same kind of tissue.
Peritoneum
The serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.
Cardiac Muscle
The tissue with intercalated discs.
Adipocytes
Fat cells.
Follicle
Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a _____.
Sebum
The holocrine glands of the skin secrete _____.
Corneum
Dead keratinized cells form the stratum _____ of the skin.
Cyanosis
A deficiency of oxygen in the blood can give rise to a skin color called _____.
Hard Keratin
The fingernails are composed of the protein _____.
Central (Haversian) Canal
Blood vessels travel through channels callee _____, seen at the centers of the osteons.
Apocrine
Axillary sweat glands are in a class called _____ glands after a former, mistaken belief about their mode of secretion.