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blast (o)

stage of cell development


a cell in development


something that breaks

cyto, cyte



outside the cell


inside the cell


substance of a cell


living substance of the cell



list the 4 types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous


a cellular sheet that is continuous and surrounds the entire surface of the body, lines the cavities of the body


lines the heart, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels


lines the surface of serous membranes such as the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum

depending on the number of cell layers, epithelial tissue may be categorized as:

simple- tissue containing 1 layer of cells
stratified- tissue containing 3 or more layers
pseudostratified- has only 1 layer but appears to have more.

list the 3 shapes of cells

columnar, squamous, cuboidal

connective tissue includes

bone, cartilage, and adipose (fatty tissue)

describe loose connective tissue

connective tissue that has large spaces separating the fibers and cells (it contains a great deal of intracellular fluid)

describe dense connective tissue

connective tissue provides structural support, having a greater fiber concentration

describe adipose connective tissue

a single fat droplet occupies most of the cell, it acts as a cushion for internal organs and as a reserve of energy supply

What are the 3 basic types of muscle tissue?

striated, cardiac, and smooth

describe striated muscle tissue

striped, or striated apperance. all striated capable of voluntary contraction is called skeletal muscle tissue

describe cardiac muscle tissue

striated but contracts involuntarily

describe smooth muscle tissue

no stripes but long, spindle shaped cells (is not under voluntary control)

name the 3 parts of a neuron

dendrites, cell body (soma) and axons

what are the 2 primary properties of nervous tissue?

irritability and conductivity

What do dendrites do?

receive impulses and conduct them into the cell body

What do axons do?

carry impulses away from the cell body

define neuroglia

support structures of nervous tissue, insulating, and protecting neurons. (found only in the nervous system)

what is in the musculoskeletal system?

bones, ligaments, skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints

what is in the nervous system?

brain, spinal cord, and nerves

what is in the cardiovascular system?

heart, arteries, veins, and nerves

what is in the lymphatic system?

lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland

what is in the hematological system?

red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma

what is in the digestive system?

mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, and pancreas

what is in the respiratory system?

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, rachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm

what is in the urinary system?

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

what is in the endocrine system?

endocrine glands, hypothalamus, hypophysis (pituitary), thyroid, thymus, parathyroid, pineal, adrenal, pancreas (insulin), and gonads

what is in the integumentary system?

skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands

what are the special sense organs?

eyes, ears, semicircuar canals, other senses of touch-taste, and feel are functions of other systems.

define ampulla

a rounded, saclike dilations of a duct, tubular structure, or canal-oval shaped storage jar. examples are tear duct and rectum

define aperture

a hole in an organ

define apex

tip or point, usually of an organ with a triangular shape

define base

part of an organ nearest to its point of attachment

define calyx

cup shaped structure

define capsule

sac that resembles a small box

define cortex

outside part of an organ

define duct

tube like structure that transports fluid or air from one part to another

define fascia

layer of connective tissue covering internal organs or parts of structures

define foramen

opening or hole in an organ or part of an organ

define fundus

base of an organ, the part of an organ oposite an opening

define gland

specialized cell, group of cells, or organ that produces a substance

define labium

lip like part

define lobe

round division of an organ

define meatus

opening or channel

define medulla

center of an organ, on the inside of the cortex

define node

small mase of tissue

define orifice

mouth like opening

define viscera

organs in a cavity of the body

define ventricle

hollow space, a small, belly like area in an organ

define tract

definite region or area of the body

define sinus

cavity, passage, or channel; a curved space

define lateral recumbant

body lying horizontally on either the right or left side

define erect

body in the standing position

define prone

body lying face down (on the tummy)

define supine

body lying face up (on the back)

define the fowlers position

head of the bed is raised, knees are slightly flexed

define the left lateral recumbant

lying on the left side with the right thigh oand knee drawn up

define lithotomy

lying on the back with the hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted and extremally rotated

define the trendelenburg position

lying flat with the head lower than the body or legs

what is the parietal?

wall of a part of the body

where is the abdominal cavity located?

between the diaphragm and the pelvic organs

define venter

belly or abdomen

define celiac


define laparo


define flank

the side of the body between the pelvis and the ribs

what is in the pelvic cavity?

large intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

what is found in the pleural spaces?

the lungs

what is the thoracic cavity?

the chest

what are the 3 cavities located in the ventral part of the body?

thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic

define cavum

hollow spaces

what are the 3 potential cavities?

peritoneal space(located in the abdominal cavity), retroperitoneal space(located behind the peritoneum), pleural cavity

what are the posterior regions of the trunk

cervical(7), thoracic(12), lumbar(5), sacral and coccyx

define coronal plane

divides the body into front and back

define sagittal plane

divides the body into right and left

define transverse plane

divides the body into top and bottom

function of bones

-protect internal tissues and organs
-stability and support of the body
-movement through lever action
-production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
-storage of 99% calcium in the body

axial skeleton

bones in the head and torso

appendicular skeleton

upper and lower extremities

what are sutures?

immobile joints that hold the skull together

define coronal suture

unites and divides the frontal bone and the two parietal bones.

define ischium

the lowest and strongest set of bones

define periosteum

a fibrous membrane that covers the bones on all surfaces except moving joints

define articular cartilage

covering of the bones at the joints

define flat bone

bones with flat surfaces- ribs, skull

define irregular bone

bones with irregular shapes- vertebrae or back bones

define long bones

bones with long shafts- femur or thigh bone

define sesamoid bones

bones that resemble a seed- patella

define short bones

bones that are relatively short- carpal (wrist) or tarsal (ankle)

define apophysis

any growth away from the surface of a bone

define diaphysis

the part of the bone between the ends of the sections of growth

define epiphysis

part of the bone that is on the part of the bone that grows

define metaphysis

part of the bone next to the growth plates; one of the shin bones

What are the 2 types of cartilage?

hyaline and white fibro cartilage

define hyaline cartilage

very elastic, cushiony and slippery; bluish color; literally translated it means "glass"

define the white fibro cartilage

elastic, flexible, and tough; found in joints such as the knee;

what is coccygodynia

condition where there is pain in the tailbone

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