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108 terms

med term mod 2

fml.
STUDY
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anatomy
structure
physiology
function
blast (o)
stage of cell development
blastocyte
a cell in development
clast
something that breaks
cyto, cyte
cell
extracellular
outside the cell
intracellular
inside the cell
plasm(o)
substance of a cell
protoplasm
living substance of the cell
histo
tissue
list the 4 types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelium
a cellular sheet that is continuous and surrounds the entire surface of the body, lines the cavities of the body
endothelium
lines the heart, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels
mesothelium
lines the surface of serous membranes such as the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum
depending on the number of cell layers, epithelial tissue may be categorized as:
simple- tissue containing 1 layer of cells
stratified- tissue containing 3 or more layers
pseudostratified- has only 1 layer but appears to have more.
list the 3 shapes of cells
columnar, squamous, cuboidal
connective tissue includes
bone, cartilage, and adipose (fatty tissue)
describe loose connective tissue
connective tissue that has large spaces separating the fibers and cells (it contains a great deal of intracellular fluid)
describe dense connective tissue
connective tissue provides structural support, having a greater fiber concentration
describe adipose connective tissue
a single fat droplet occupies most of the cell, it acts as a cushion for internal organs and as a reserve of energy supply
What are the 3 basic types of muscle tissue?
striated, cardiac, and smooth
describe striated muscle tissue
striped, or striated apperance. all striated capable of voluntary contraction is called skeletal muscle tissue
describe cardiac muscle tissue
striated but contracts involuntarily
describe smooth muscle tissue
no stripes but long, spindle shaped cells (is not under voluntary control)
name the 3 parts of a neuron
dendrites, cell body (soma) and axons
what are the 2 primary properties of nervous tissue?
irritability and conductivity
What do dendrites do?
receive impulses and conduct them into the cell body
What do axons do?
carry impulses away from the cell body
define neuroglia
support structures of nervous tissue, insulating, and protecting neurons. (found only in the nervous system)
what is in the musculoskeletal system?
bones, ligaments, skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints
what is in the nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, and nerves
what is in the cardiovascular system?
heart, arteries, veins, and nerves
what is in the lymphatic system?
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland
what is in the hematological system?
red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma
what is in the digestive system?
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, and pancreas
what is in the respiratory system?
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, rachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm
what is in the urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
what is in the endocrine system?
endocrine glands, hypothalamus, hypophysis (pituitary), thyroid, thymus, parathyroid, pineal, adrenal, pancreas (insulin), and gonads
what is in the integumentary system?
skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands
what are the special sense organs?
eyes, ears, semicircuar canals, other senses of touch-taste, and feel are functions of other systems.
define ampulla
a rounded, saclike dilations of a duct, tubular structure, or canal-oval shaped storage jar. examples are tear duct and rectum
define aperture
a hole in an organ
define apex
tip or point, usually of an organ with a triangular shape
define base
part of an organ nearest to its point of attachment
define calyx
cup shaped structure
define capsule
sac that resembles a small box
define cortex
outside part of an organ
define duct
tube like structure that transports fluid or air from one part to another
define fascia
layer of connective tissue covering internal organs or parts of structures
define foramen
opening or hole in an organ or part of an organ
define fundus
base of an organ, the part of an organ oposite an opening
define gland
specialized cell, group of cells, or organ that produces a substance
define labium
lip like part
define lobe
round division of an organ
define meatus
opening or channel
define medulla
center of an organ, on the inside of the cortex
define node
small mase of tissue
define orifice
mouth like opening
define viscera
organs in a cavity of the body
define ventricle
hollow space, a small, belly like area in an organ
define tract
definite region or area of the body
define sinus
cavity, passage, or channel; a curved space
define lateral recumbant
body lying horizontally on either the right or left side
define erect
body in the standing position
define prone
body lying face down (on the tummy)
define supine
body lying face up (on the back)
define the fowlers position
head of the bed is raised, knees are slightly flexed
define the left lateral recumbant
lying on the left side with the right thigh oand knee drawn up
define lithotomy
lying on the back with the hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted and extremally rotated
define the trendelenburg position
lying flat with the head lower than the body or legs
what is the parietal?
wall of a part of the body
where is the abdominal cavity located?
between the diaphragm and the pelvic organs
define venter
belly or abdomen
define celiac
abdominal
define laparo
loin
define flank
the side of the body between the pelvis and the ribs
what is in the pelvic cavity?
large intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
what is found in the pleural spaces?
the lungs
what is the thoracic cavity?
the chest
what are the 3 cavities located in the ventral part of the body?
thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic
define cavum
hollow spaces
what are the 3 potential cavities?
peritoneal space(located in the abdominal cavity), retroperitoneal space(located behind the peritoneum), pleural cavity
what are the posterior regions of the trunk
cervical(7), thoracic(12), lumbar(5), sacral and coccyx
define coronal plane
divides the body into front and back
define sagittal plane
divides the body into right and left
define transverse plane
divides the body into top and bottom
function of bones
-protect internal tissues and organs
-stability and support of the body
-movement through lever action
-production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
-storage of 99% calcium in the body
axial skeleton
bones in the head and torso
appendicular skeleton
upper and lower extremities
what are sutures?
immobile joints that hold the skull together
define coronal suture
unites and divides the frontal bone and the two parietal bones.
define ischium
the lowest and strongest set of bones
define periosteum
a fibrous membrane that covers the bones on all surfaces except moving joints
define articular cartilage
covering of the bones at the joints
define flat bone
bones with flat surfaces- ribs, skull
define irregular bone
bones with irregular shapes- vertebrae or back bones
define long bones
bones with long shafts- femur or thigh bone
define sesamoid bones
bones that resemble a seed- patella
define short bones
bones that are relatively short- carpal (wrist) or tarsal (ankle)
define apophysis
any growth away from the surface of a bone
define diaphysis
the part of the bone between the ends of the sections of growth
define epiphysis
part of the bone that is on the part of the bone that grows
define metaphysis
part of the bone next to the growth plates; one of the shin bones
What are the 2 types of cartilage?
hyaline and white fibro cartilage
define hyaline cartilage
very elastic, cushiony and slippery; bluish color; literally translated it means "glass"
define the white fibro cartilage
elastic, flexible, and tough; found in joints such as the knee;
what is coccygodynia
condition where there is pain in the tailbone