10.3 Regulating the Cell Cycle
Terms in this set (27)
Dozens of proteins regulate the cell cycle
are proteins that regulate the timing of cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Regulatory proteins work both inside and outside of the cell
-Internal regulators allow the cell cycle to proceed when certain events have occurred within a cell
External regulators called growth factors stimulate the cell cycle. Other external regulators cause the cell cycle to slow down or stop
stimulate the cell cycle
is programmed cell death that plays a key role in the development of tissues and organs
a disorder in which cells divide uncontrollably, forming a mass of cells called a tumor
-are caused by defects in genes that regulate cell growth
mass of cells
Treatments for cancer include:
-removal of cancerous tumors
-radiation, which interferes with the copying of DNA in multiplying cancer cells
-chemotherapy, which is the use of chemicals to kill cancer cells
Cells tend to... dividing when they come into contact with other cells
Cell division... when the healing process nears completion
Proteins called... regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
If chromosomes have not attached to spindle fibers during metaphase, an... regulatory protein will prevent the cell from entering anaphase
Growth factors are external regulatory proteins that... the cell cycles
once apoptosis is triggered, a cell proceeds to ...
Effects of Cyclins
Effect: Tell a cell when to begin steps of the cell cycle (ex. growth, DNA synthesis, mitosis, cytokinesis)
Effects of Internal regulatory proteins
Stop a cell from going to the next stage of the cell cycle if internal events have not occurred (ex. prevent a cell from entering mitosis until chromosomes are replicated)
Effects of External regulatory proteins
Speed up the cell cycle (ex. for embryonic growth and wound healing) or slow down the cell cycle (ex. so that one body tissue's growth does not disrupt another's)
What is cancer?
Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
What are the to basic types of tumors? Explain how they are different.
Tumors may be malignant or benign. A malignant tumor is cancerous and will invade and destroy healthy tissue around it or in other parts of the body. A benign tumor is noncancerous and does not spread into surrounding tissues or to other parts of the body
Why can cancer by life threatening?
Rapidly dividing cancer cells take nutrients away from healthy tissues. This leads to a disruption of the proper functioning of body organs that causes illness and may lead to death.
What is the cause of cancer?
Defects in genes that regulate cell growth and division cause cancer.
How do radiation and chemotherapy affect cancer cells?
Radiation disrupts the cancer cell cycle by interfering with the copying of DNA. Chemotherapy kills cancer cells.
Cancer cells do not respond to signals that regulate cell...
Cancer cells form a mass of cells called a...
cancer cells may break loose and... throughout the body
Cancer cells form tumors in other tissues by ....
Hair grows from hair follicles, pockets of continually dividing cells in the outer layer of the skin. New cells are added to the base of a hair shaft, inside each follicle. Use what you have learned in this lesson to explain why cancer patients often lose their hair when receiving chemotherapy and grow more hair after chemotherapy stops
The chemicals stop cell division in both cancer cells and healthy cells, such as the ones that produce hair. When no new cells are being added to the hair shafts, the shafts break and the hairs fall out. When chemotherapy stops, cell division in the hair follicles resumes and hair starts to grow again.