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PLTW DE Unit 1-2 Key Terms
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Project Lead The Way: Digital Electronics Unit 1-2 Key Terms
Terms in this set (35)
Analog
A way of representing some physical quantity, such as temperature or velocity, by a proportional continuous voltage or current. An analog voltage or current can have any value within a defined range.
Amplitude
The instantaneous voltage of a waveform. Often used to mean maximum amplitude, or peak voltage, or a pulse.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that still has the same characteristics as the element.
Breadboard
A circuit board for wiring temporary circuits, usually used for prototypes or laboratory work.
Conductor
Any material that allows the free movement of electric changes, such as electrons, to provide an electric current.
Conventional Current
The direction of current flow associated with positive charge in motion. The current flow direction is from a positive to negative potential, which is in the opposite direction of electron flow.
Clock
Digital signal in the form of a rectangular pulse train or a square wave.
Current
A movement of electrical charges around a closed path or circuit.
Digital
A way of representing a physical quantity by a series of binary numbers. A digital representation can have only specific discrete values.
Digital Waveform
A series of logic 1s and 0s plotted as a function of time.
Digital Multi-Meter(DMM)
A piece of test equipment used to measure voltage, current, and resistance in an electronic circuit.
Duty Cycle (DC)
Fraction of the total period that a digital waveform is in the HIGH state. DC = th/T (often expressed as a percentage: %DC = th/Tx100%).
Electron
Basic particle of negative charge in orbit; around the nucleus in an atom.
Electron Flow
Current of negative charges in motion. Direction is from the negative terminal of the voltage source, through the external, circuit, and returning to the positive side of the source. Opposite to the direction of conventional current.
Falling Edge
The part of a pulse where the logic level is in transition from a HIGH to a LOW.
Frequency
The number of cycles per unit time of a periodic waveform.
Hertz (Hz)
Unit of frequency. One hertz equals one cycle per second.
Insulator
A material that does not allow current to flow when voltage is applied because of its high resistance.
Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)
The algebraic sum of all currents into and out of any branch point in a circuit must equal zero.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)
The algebraic sum of all voltages around any closed path must equal zero.
Logic HIGH
The higher of two voltages in a digital system with two logic levels.
Logic LOW
The lower of two voltages in a digital system with two logic levels.
Nucleus
The massive, stable part of the atom that contains both protons and neutrons.
Ohms
Unit of resistance. Value of one ohm allow current of one ampere with potential difference of one volt.
Ohm's Law
In electric circuits, I=V/R.
Oscilloscope
A piece of test equipment used to view and measure a variety of different waveforms.
Parallel Circuit
One that has two or more branches for separate current from one voltage source.
Period
The amount of time required for one complete cycle of a periodic event or waveform.
Proton
Particle with positive charge in the nucleus of an atom.
Simulation
Testing design function by specifying a set of inputs and observing the resultant outputs. Simulation is generally shown as a series of input and output waveforms.
Resistance
Opposition to current. Unit is the ohm.
Series Circuit
One that has only one path current.
Sine Wave
One in which amplitude varies in proportion to the sine function of an angle.
Square Wave
An almost instantaneous rise and decay of voltage or current in a periodic pattern with time and with a constant peak value.
555 Timer
TTL-compatible IC that can be wired to operate in several different modes, such as a one-shot and an astable multivibrator.
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