169 terms

Mr. Carr Midterms

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1st Continental Congress
Assembled when King George III placed Boston under martial law. 56 delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a declaration of Colonial Rights. Gave Britain a list of demands and agreed to meet again if they weren't met.
Virginia Plan
Madison's plan to strengthen the central government. Involved a bicameral (two house) legislature with representation based on each states population. Small states were feverently opposed to this, as it gave more power to larger states.
Henry David Thoreau
Lived alone for 2 years in a cabin in Massachusetts. He practiced civil disobediance when the US involved himself in a war he did not support, so he refused to pay his taxes.
Republic
A government where the citizens rule through elected representatives
Shay's Rebellion
An uprising of debt ridden Massachusetts farmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787. The US central government had difficulty putting the rebellion down due to their inability to tax.
Delegate
A person chosen/authorized to represent others, in particular an elected representative sent to a conference.
Articles of Confederation
A type of government created to be used in the United States. It consisted of two levels of government which shared fundamental powers. It failed because there was nothing really unifying the states and the central government was too weak. It was replaced by the Constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1801
A law that John Adams passed right before he left office which increased the number of Federal Judges, allowing him to fill the positions with Federalists.
American System
A pre-civil war set of measures designed to unify the nation and strengthen its economy by means of protective tariffs, a national bank, and internal imporvements such as roads and canals.
Minuteman
The soldiers in the Revolutionary Army during the Revolutionary War. They pledged to be ready to battle in a minute, thus their name.
Bicameral
Two house
Alexander Hamilton
A leading federalist who became Washington's secretary of the treasury. He was the one who came up with the idea for a national bank. He was constantly fighting with Thomas Jefferson, and typically supported the needs of the wealthy over the common man.
Nullification
The right of states to consider void any laws passed by the central government that they deemed unconstitutional.
Tariff
A tax placed on goods imported into the country from other nations
French and Indian War
A war waged between Britain and the French (who had the assisstance of the native Americans). Britain was victorious, but this started the colonists feeling slighted and led up to the Revolutionary War.
Whig Party
A political party made specifically to oppose the ideals of Andrew Jackson
Sons of Liberty
A group of artisans assembled in Boston in response to the Stamp Act. As tensions with Britain grew, so did their organization. They were the ones who organized the Boston Tea Party.
Large v. Small States
A conflict when the US government was being created. Large states wanted
Cabinet
A collection of department heads who are consulted for advice by the President.
Concord
Thomas Gage's troops marched here to seize colonial weapons, but were intercepted by minutemen, who battled with the Redcoats in Lexington, then here.
Madbury vs. Madison
A supreme court case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional. This power came to be known as judicial review.
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution and of a strong central government.
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of the Constitution and of a strong central government
Constitution Article 1
Describes how the legislature branch works in the US government
Constitution Article 2
Describes how the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government works
Constitution Article 3
Describes how the Juiaciary Branch works in the
Constitution Article 4
Describes the relationship among the states in the U.S.
Constitution Article 5
Describes the process to amend the Constitution
Constitution Article 6
Supremacy of the national government
Constitution Article 7
Ratification process of the U.S. Constitution
Senate
A house of Congress. Each state has 2 members in this.
Secession
The formal withdrawal of a state from the union
Democracy
A system of government where the population votes for most major decisions
2nd Great Awakening
19th Century religious movement in which individual responsibilty for seeking salvation was emphasized, along with a desire to improve social health
Daniel Shays
A Massachusetts farmer, one of the leaders in Shay's Rebellion.
Martial Law
When the military temporary becomes the government. Thomas Gage placed Boston under this to keep the peace after the Intolerable Acts were placed.
XYZ Affair
An incident where low level French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. officials to speak to the French ambassador.
Elastic Clause
The clause in the Constitution which grants Congress any powers needed to accomplish the powers granted to them by the Constitution
Valley Forge
Where the Colonial Army stayed during one winter of the Revolutionary War.
Senator
A member of the Senate. Each state gets two.
Abolition
Movement to end slavery
Abolitionist
Someone who opposes slavery
Tariff of Abominations
John. C. Calhoun's nickname for the Tariff of 1828, which to Southeners seemed to be only for the good of the North.
Whiskey Rebellion
A rebellion staged by Alexander Hamilton in order to display the power of the national government under the Constitution compared to the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
Intolerable Acts
A series of laws enacted by Parliment to punish Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
3/5 Compromise
The agreement to, when finding a states population, count 3/5 of slaves into the population count.
George Washington
The leader of the Continental Army and the 1st president of the United States. He did not support Political Parties.
"The North Star"
A newspaper for abolitionists created by Frederick Douglass
Revolutionary War
The war waged for America's independence from Great Britain
Declaration of Sentiments
A declaration from the ladies of the Seneca Falls Convention in order to declare that they had equal tights to men.
Great Compromise
The Constitutional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with one house having representation based on population while the other had equal representation for all states.
Declaration of Independence
The document written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 in which the delegates of the Continental Congress declared the colonies independance from Britain.
2nd Continental Congress
The Continental Congress which approved the Declaration of Independance and served as the national government during the Revolutionary War.
Erie Canal
A 363 mile long artificial waterway which connected the Hudson River to Lake Erie. It took 8 years to build.
Tax
When the government takes money from the people for funding through increased prices on goods or various other methods
King George
The King of Britain during the Revolutionary War
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments in Constitution, implemented together right after Constitution was ratified in order to give the people of America their right
Amendment 1
The freedom of speech, the press, peaceful assembly, to petition the government and to say greivances
Amendment 2
The right to bear arms
Amendment 3
No soldiers can live with civilians without the consent of the owner of the house
Amendment 4
The police need a warrant to search someone or their possessions
Amendment 5
Make it so someone does not have to answer a question in court if they feel it could convict them.
Amendment 6
Fair and speedy public trial by jury
Amendment 7
A person has the right to a jury trial for civil cases
Amendment 8
Bail must be reasonable and punishment must be fair.
Amendment 9
The amendment which states that people's rights are not limited to those in the Constitution.
Amendment 10
It states that any powers that the constitution does not specifically give to the national government are reserved for the states and for the people.
Democratic-Republican
A political party known for its support of strong state governments, founded by Thomas Jefferson to oppose the Federalist Party
Protective Tariff
A tariff placed to protect the manufacturers of the country
Treaty of Ghent
The treaty between the U.S. and Britain which ended the War of 1812. It really just set things back to how they were before the War, and did not adress the reasons that the war was started.
Louisiana Purchase
The purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France
Unicameral
One house
Franco-American Alliance
The alliance between France and America during Americas revolutionary war
Sectionalism
Placing the interest of one's own region above that of the nation as a whole.
Gag Rule
A rule limiting or preventing debate on an issue
Virginia + Kentucky Resolution
When two states refused to follow the Alien and Sedition Acts fue to their belief that it was Unconstitutional.
Veto
The president's ability to turn down a law proposed to him
Congress
Has the power to ratify treaties and delcare war, and the power to make laws.
The Union
The country as a whole
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. The French Navy and american Army trapped Cornwallis and forced him to surrender.
Townshend Acts
A series of laws enacted by Parliament which established indirect taxes on goods imported from Britain into the colonies.
Checks and Balances
The provisions in the U.S. Constitution which prevent any branch of the U.S. government from dominating the other two.
Profiteering
The selling of goods at heightened prices due to them being in low supply
Unalienable Rights
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
House of Representatives
House of Congress where the size of the state determines the number of representative
Petition
A formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority
Ratification
The official approval of the Constitution or amendments to it by the states
Roger Sherman
He helped draft the Great Compromise that determined how states would be represented in Congress
Marquis de Layfayette
French nobleman and soldier who spent the winter at Valley Forge; helped Continental Army gain more French support
U.S. Constitution
"The supreme law of the land." Written at the constitutional convention in Philadelphia, amended 27 times (first 10= bill of rights), creates 3 branches of national government, oldest written constitution that is still in use, and it was made because the government set up by the Articles of Confederation was too weak.
John Jay
1st chief justice of the supreme court; jays treaty (made the british give up there claim to the forts in the north, promised to reimburse they for the seized cargo); wrote the federalists papers
Missouri Compromise
Compromise over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Loyalists
Colonists who supported the British government during the American Revolution
Egalitarianism
A belief that all people should have equal political, economic, social, and civil rights.
War of 1812
War that resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army . Involved to the Embargo Act and the Chesapeake attack on the Leopard.
Lexington
The city through which Thomas Gages troops had to pass in order to reach Concord, where they planned to seize Colonist weapons. They were ambushed by the colonists here, starting the battle of Lexington and Concord.
Monroe Doctrine
A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. refused to jointly issue this declaration with Britain because they wanted it to apply to the British as well.
Incumbent
Someone who is running for reelection
Colonization
The establishment of outlying settlements by a parent country.
Judicial Review
The supreme court's power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
Lucretia Mott
One of the ladies who arranged the Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention
A women's rights convention held in New York
Trail of Tears
The marches in which the Cherokee Indians were forcibly removed from Georgia and relocated to Indian territory. Thousands of Native Americans died along the way.
Cotton Gin
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers invented by Eli Whitney. It was intended to make the slave's job easier, but it instead lead to an extreme increase in slavery.
Colonist
Someone who leaves the mother country and moves to a colony
Continental Army
The army that fought for the Colonies' Independence during the Revolutionary War
Amendment 12
Describes how the President and Vice President will be elected
Friedrich von Steuben
Russian who trained the Continental Army in Valley Forge
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
The first Supreme Court case in which the Court recognized the workers' right to strike
Executive Branch
The branch of the government which administers and enforces laws
Judicial Branch
The branch of the government which interprets laws and the Constitution.
Legislative Branch
The branch of the government which makes laws.
Boston Tea Party
The dumping of tea into the Boston Harbor by colonists in order to protest the Tea Act
Representatives
Members of the House of Representatives. The number of these that each state gets is determined by the states population.
Neutrality
A refusal to take part in a war between other nations.
1st Bank of the U.S.
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton, opposed by south, place of deposit for government revenues, established with Washington's support in Philadelphia
2nd Bank of the U.S.
It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System.
Internal Improvements
Federal projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation's transportation system
Revival
Meeting designed to reawaken religious faith
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over the Brittish during the War which convinced Framce to officially support the Colonists.
Excise Tax
A tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced in a country.
Thomas Paine
Author of "Common Sense"
Precedent
An event or action that acts as a guide for similar events
Eli Whitney
Inventor of interchangleable parts and the cotton gin
"Common Sense"
A pamhlet made anonymously by Thomas Paine which called for the seperation of the colonies from Britain.
Frederick Douglass
An educated free black who spoke for abolitionism and wrote "The North Star"
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A law that established a procedure for admission of new states into the Union
James Monroe
5th US president and creator of the Monroe Doctrine
John Adams
The second President of the US and issuer of the Judiciary Act 1801
Martin Van Buren
He stood up for Peggy Eaton as Andrew Jackson's secretary of state and Jackson promised to reward him, becoming Jackson's vice president and the President after him.
Samuel Adams
Urged people to keep up the rebellion when Britain took away direct taxes on everything but tea
Patronage
An officeholders power to appoint people- usually ones who helped them get elected- to positions in the government
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Writer and philosopher, led transcendalist movement
Federalist Papers
A series of essays defending and explaining the Constitution
John C. Calhoun
Supporter of South when they were displeased with the governments seeming favoriting of the North. He nicknamed the Tariff of 1828 the Tariff of Abominations.
Spoils System
The practice of winning candidates rewarding their supporters with jobs.
Enumerated Powers
Powers given to the national government by the Constitution, aka delegated powers
Charles G. Finney
"The Father of Modern Revivalism"
Alien and Sedition Acts
A series of four laws enacted to reduce the power of recent immigrants to the United States
Robert Fulton
Inventor of the steamboat
John Locke
Said that it was the government's duty to protect life liberty and property, which was used in Constitution as the peoples undeniable truths: that the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Washington's Farewell Adress
Washington's speech when he left office, he told the colonists to avoid permanent alliances with other nations and not to break into political parties
Thomas Jefferson
3rd president of the United States and Washington's Secretary of State. Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
John Quincy Adams
Son of John Adams and 6th President of the United States. He narrowly beat Andrew Jackson at his presidency with the help of Henry Clay
William Henry Harrison
A president from the Whig party, died shortly after taking office
Elizabeth C. Stanton
Author of the "Declaration of Sentiments," prominent figure in the early womans rights stage
Electoral College
A group selected by the states to elect the president and vice president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to how many senators and representatives that state has in congress
Treaty of Paris
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, confirming the independence of the United States and settling the boundaries of the new nation.
Federalism
A political system in which a national government and constituent units, such as state governments , share power
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (a.k.a. Isabella Van Wagner)
Delegated Powers
Powers specifically granted to the Federal Government in the US Constitution, a.k.a. enumerated powers
William Lloyd Garrison
Important white abolitionist. Wrote "The Liberator" and did not support the slaves using violence to free themselves.
Nullification Ordinance
The ability of States to nullify any Federal laws that they deem unconstitutional
Seperation of Powers
When the powers of the government are seperated into branches, like the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branch
James Madison
5th President of the United States, helped write "The Federalist Papers"
Henry Clay
"The Great Compromiser," he developed the American System , urged Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States, who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans. As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
John Tyler
Known as "His Accidency," he was never supposed to be President, but William Henry Harrison died in office and left him president.
David Walker
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Force Bill
Bill created by Andrew Jackson which allowed him to use the military to collect taxes. Sputh Carolina nullified this
Override
The ability of the Congress to cancel the President's veto by a 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress
Nationalism
A devotion to the interests and cultures of ones nation
Necessary and Proper Clause
Another name for the Elastic Clause
Charles Cornwallis
A British general. He lost at the Battle of Yorktown, commonly known as the end of the war, in 1781.
Reserved Powers
Powers given to the state government alone.
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal which gave equal power to all states, supported by small states
Midnight Judges
16 new judges appointed in the Federal Courts by John Adams as he was leaving office. Soen could not get their paperwork before Adams left, and did not become judges.
Dorothea Dix
19th century women who educated prisoners and set up hispitals for the mentally ill
Horace Mann
Supported public schools paid fro by taxes, specialized training for teachers, mandatory attendance, and students studying the three r's: Arithmetic, Reading, and Writing