Final Exam (Ch6- 20)

Resting heart rates of elite endurance athletes can be approximately
-90 beats/min
-60 beats/min
-45 beats/min
-75 beats/min
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Which chamber of the heart has the thickest walls? -left atrium -right ventricle -right atrium -left ventricleleft ventricleCardiac muscle fibers are most similar to which skeletal muscle fiber? -type IIx -type IIb -type IIa -type Itype IA decrease in blood oxygen concentration can lead to a localized vasodilation in the body. -False -TrueTrueVeins always carry deoxygenated blood. -True -FalseFalseVeins cannot constrict since they have no smooth muscle. -True -FalseFalseAt rest, the _____________ receive(s) about 50% of cardiac output. -skeletal muscle -skin -liver and kidneys -brainliver and kidneysWhich of the following could be considered a normal hematocrit reading? -60 -20 -40 -8040_____________ are located in the aortic arch and carotid arteries and are sensitive to changes in blood pressure. -mechanoreceptors -baroreceptors -osmoreceptors -chemoreceptorsbaroreceptorsAcetylcholine affects the sinoatrial node by -promoting hyperpolarization -promoting depolarization -promoting repolarization -promoting Ca2+ releasepromoting hyperpolarizationAt rest, the majority of cardiac output is directed to the liver and kidneys. -True -FalseTrueThe first sound in a heartbeat is the sound of the atrioventricular valves closing. -True -FalseTrueThe right and left ventricles contract at the same time. -True -FalseTrueDuring diastole, -atria and ventricles fill with blood -pulmonary and aortic valves are open -atrioventricular valves are closed -ventricular pressure increases rapidlyatria and ventricles fill with bloodThe P wave on an ECG represents atrial repolarization. -True -FalseFalseThe second heart sound heard through a stethoscope during auscultation indicates which event in the heart? -atrioventricular valves closing -pulmonary and aortic valves opening -pulmonary and aortic valves closing -atrioventricular valves openingpulmonary and aortic valves closingIn general, the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes __________ blood vessels. -vasodilation of -no effect on -vasoconstriction ofvasoconstriction ofThe pulmonary veins travel from the __________ to the __________. -right atrium, lungs -lungs, left ventricle -right atrium, left atrium -lungs, left atriumlungs, left atriumThe volume of air that remains in the lungs after expiration and cannot be exhaled is the -total lung capacity -tidal volume -residual volume -vital capacityresidual volumeIf chemoreceptors stimulate an increase in breathing rate and depth, this occurs because -more oxygen is needed -excess CO2 needs to be "blown off" (removed) -PO2 was too high -blood pH was too alkalineexcess CO2 needs to be "blown off" (removed)When you inhale, which of the following occurs as a result of the respiratory pump? -Pulmonary capillaries collapse. -Pulmonary veins are compressed. -Thoracic vena cavae fill. -Abdominal (inferior) vena cava expands.Thoracic vena cavae fillThe respiratory centers regulate breathing by stimulating contraction of skeletal muscles that control ventilation. -False -TrueTrueDuring normal quiet breathing, the neurons in the expiratory respiratory center are -firing frequently -tonically active -intrinsically firing -not activenot activeThe maximum totalO2-carrying capacity for a person with a blood volume of 5 L would be approximately -10 L O2 -1 L O2 -20 mL O2 -200 mL O21 L O2As lung volume increases, lung pressure decreases (and vice versa). -False -TrueTrueThe physiological "dead space" is composed of all of the following EXCEPT -nose -pharynx -larynx -bronchiolesbronchiolesIn hemoglobin, CO2 binds to -the iron in the heme -the globular protein -the heme (noniron portion) -both heme and globular proteinthe globular proteinThe pectoral (chest) muscles are used during forced expiration. -True -FalseFalseThe maximal volume of air that can be accommodated by the lungs is the -tidal volume -vital capacity -total lung capacity -residual volumetotal lung capacityWhen the oxyhemoglobin curve shifts during exercise, what is the result? -O2 unloading becomes more difficult at the muscles. -O2 unloading becomes easier at the muscles. -O2 loading becomes more difficult in the lungs. -O2 loading becomes easier in the lungs.O2 unloading becomes easier at the muscles.During heavy exercise, inhalation is assisted by all of the following EXCEPT -internal intercostals -pectorals -sternocleidomastoid -scaleniinternal intercostalsSpirometry can be used to diagnose pulmonary diseases. -True -FalseTrueAlveoli are structurally and functionally most similar to which part of the cardiovascular system? -arteries -veins -arterioles -capillariescapillariesMyoglobin loading happens at the same PO2 as hemoglobin unloading. -False -TrueTrueThe anchoring membrane that attaches to the lungs themselves is the -serous pleura -thoracic pleura -visceral pleura -parietal pleuravisceral pleuraCarbon dioxide and oxygen directly compete with each other for hemoglobin binding. -True -FalseFalseIncreased blood pressure during exercise has what effect on plasma volume? -It decreases due to decreased capillary oncotic pressure. -It decreases due to increased capillary hydrostatic pressure. -It increases due to increased capillary oncotic pressure. -It increases due to increased tissue oncotic pressure.It decreases due to increased capillary hydrostatic pressure.If the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen starts to increase and at the same time the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide does not increase, this means that -anaerobic metabolism is increasing -aerobic metabolism is increasing -ventilation is becoming more efficient -ventilation is not meeting oxygen demands of the bodyanaerobic metabolism is increasingCompared to untrained individuals, trained endurance athletes have -higher maximal stroke volumes -higher maximal heart rates -higher resting cardiac outputs -higher resting heart rateshigher maximal stroke volumesFor most individuals, stroke volume starts to plateau at approximately _____% of -50 -100 -75 -2550Active recovery leads to additional acid production and should be avoided after exercise. -False -TrueFalseChemical buffers in the blood are only a short-term solution for blood acidosis after exercise. -True -FalseTrueMaximal heart rate is determined by age, not fitness status. -False -TrueTrueAccumulation of metabolic by-products in muscle (H+, CO2, heat) leads to -reduced muscle blood flow -sympathetic activation -vasoconstriction -vasodilationvasodilationWhich type of blood vessel is primarily responsible for redirecting blood flow? -arteries -capillaries -veins -arterioles -venulesarteriolesWhy does hyperventilation decrease the drive to breathe? -It increases PO2 and decreases pH. -It decreases PCO2 and increases pH. -It increases PCO2 and decreases pH. -It decreases PO2.It decreases PCO2 and increases pHCompared to other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles -have a greater oxidative capacity -have a greater anaerobic capacity -have fewer capillaries -have a greater ratio of type II to type I fibershave a greater oxidative capacityVO2max is likely to be limited by -substrate availability -all of these -cardiac output -H+ ion accumulationcardiac outputDuring moderate exercise in the heat, which vascular beds receive the most blood flow? -muscle, brain -muscle, skin -muscle, splanchnic (gut) -muscle, renal (kidneys)muscle, skinIf blood pressure is relatively low, will it have an effect on stroke volume? Why? -no, because the vasculature does not affect cardiac function -yes, because they are both indicators of good cardiovascular health -no, because blood pressure has no effect on end-diastolic volume -yes, because the left ventricle pumps against less resistanceyes, because the left ventricle pumps against less resistanceWhich of these systolic pressures would realistically be seen at maximal endurance exercise? -160 mmHg -200 mmHg -120 mmHg -80 mmHg200 mmHgWhich of the following is commonly used to estimate HRmax? -(220 age in years) / 0.7 -maximal cardiac output or maximal stroke volume -220 - age in years -the lactate threshold220 - age in yearsIf dehydration causes hematocrit to rise to 60%, what is the consequence? -diminished exercise capacity due to enhanced venous return -diminished exercise capacity due to impeded blood flow -enhanced exercise capacity due to lower blood viscosity -enhanced exercise capacity due to higher red blood cell concentrationdiminished exercise capacity due to impeded blood flowHyperventilation causes -a decrease in carbon dioxide -an increase in carbon dioxide -a decrease in oxygen -an increase in oxygena decrease in carbon dioxideWhen neural and circulating norepinephrine leads to an increase in stroke volume, it is due to -increased resistance -increased preload -increased afterload -increased contractilityincreased contractilityMany scientists view cardiac output as the limiting factor for VO2max -False -TrueTrueUrine produced after strenuous exercise is most likely __________ compared to urine produced before exercise. -neutral -mildly alkaline -acidic -strongly alkalineacidicA Tour de France winner may not be a great marathon runner due to the principle of -progressive overload -specificity -individuality -reversibilityspecificityThe loss of exercise capacity, strength, and performance after cessation of training is called -progressive underload -detraining -microcycling -periodizationdetrainingTraining must make further demands on the body to produce further improvements. -False -TrueTrueDeveloping the ATP-PCr system requires an intensity of ____________ %. -70 to 80 -50 to 60 -80 to 90 -90 to 10090 to 100Maximal anaerobic capacity would involve -maximal ATP production from oxygen-dependent pathways -maximal ATP production from NADH -maximal ATP production from PCr -maximal ATP production in the mitochondriamaximal ATP production from PCrGenetics is not a significant factor to consider when designing a training plan. -False -TrueFalseWho has the most power? -athlete D (bench presses 250 kg over 0.6 m in 2.5 s) -athlete A (bench presses 100 kg over 0.6 m in 0.5 s) -athlete C (bench presses 200 kg over 0.6 m in 2.0 s) -athlete B (bench presses 150 kg over 0.6 m in 1.0 s)athlete A (bench presses 100 kg over 0.6 m in 0.5 s)Training must be varied to produce further improvements. -False -TrueTrueStatic-contraction resistance training may be best suited for -hypertrophy -muscular endurance -increasing power -injury recoveryinjury recoveryVO2max is synonymous with maximal aerobic power. -True -FalseTrueFree weights are better at building strength in the extreme ranges (vs. the midrange) of motion. -True -FalseTrueElectrical stimulation provides the most benefit for muscular strength when -alternated with isokinetic resistance training -substituted for variable-resistance training -used concurrently with eccentric resistance training -employed during immobilization after an injuryemployed during immobilization after an injuryWho would be most likely to have similar responses to a given training program? -2 female swimmers -2 150 lb 5-foot-10-inch athletes -2 elite 10K runners -identical twinsidentical twinsCompared to someone who can squat 75 kg, someone else who can squat 150 kg has -twice the power -twice the 5-repetition maximum -twice the muscular endurance -twice the strengthtwice the strengthMuscular endurance could be assessed by -running on a treadmill -vertical jump -1RM -number of repetitions completed at 75% 1RMnumber of repetitions completed at 75% 1RMImmobilization primarily affects -all fiber types equally -type IIx fibers -type IIa fibers -type I fiberstype I fibersIn untrained individuals, motor units are recruited asynchronously. -True -FalseTrueWhich intracellular change likely contributes the MOST to increases in fiber size, cross-sectional area, and strength? -more connective tissue -more mitochondria -more actin and myosin filaments -more sarcoplasmmore actin and myosin filamentsTransient hypertrophy is primarily stimulated by -edema -glycogen depletion -lactic acid accumulation -fluid and electrolyte lossesedemaIt is unsafe for children and adolescents to engage in a resistance training program. -False -TrueFalseProtein synthesis ___________ during exercise and ____________ after exercise. -increases, increases -increases, decreases -decreases, decreases -decreases, increasesdecreases, increasesAbsolute strength gains are typically greatest in -women -men -the elderly -childrenmenTransient hypertrophy results from increased protein synthesis and lasts about a week. -True -FalseFalseWomen respond to resistance training in a way that's similar to men. -True -FalseTrueA major consideration when prescribing resistance training to children and adolescents is -proper training technique -sport-specific components -training volume -progressive loadingproper training techniqueWhich sarcomere structure reveals the most information about the intensity of eccentric workouts? -M-line -actin filament -Z-disk -myosin filamentZ-diskResistance training is only beneficial for competitive athletes. -False -TrueFalseLoss in fat free mass that accompanies aging is called -sarcopenia -cachexia -atrophy -aging syndromesarcopeniaAn athlete training to increase muscle size should consume ______ to _____ g protein per kg body weight per day. -1.2, 1.4 -1.0, 1.2 -0.8, 1.0 -1.6, 1.71.6, 1.7Older adults have the same response to resistance training as younger adults. -True -FalseFalseResistance training can lead to the conversion of ________ fibers into _____ fibers. -type IIa, type IIx -type I, type IIx -type IIx, type IIa -type IIa, type Itype IIx, type IIaThe primary stimulus for muscle protein synthesis is -a high-protein diet -neural recruitment of muscle fibers -isometric contraction -mechanical stretch of the musclemechanical stretch of the muscleAt what age can an adolescent progress to an entry-level adult program if the proper knowledge and experience has been achieved? -16 years -14 years -17 years -15 years16 yearsStrength gains cannot occur unless there is an increase in muscle size. -False -TrueFalseA triathlon athlete who is simultaneously training for the swim, bike, and run portions of the event is practicing -high-intensity interval training -cross-training -multitasking -anaerobic trainingcross-trainingWhich of the following changes does NOT occur in the blood after aerobic training? -hematocrit increases -hematocrit decreases -red blood cell production increases -plasma volume increaseshematocrit increasesHigh-intensity interval training yields -beneficial changes in muscle metabolic enzyme activity only -aerobic fitness equal to that gained by chronic endurance training -less impressive aerobic fitness results than chronic endurance training -better anaerobic fitness than traditional sprint trainingaerobic fitness equal to that gained by chronic endurance trainingIn response to aerobic training, muscle fiber mitochondria -increase in number only -increase in size and number -decrease in number but increase in size -increase in number but decrease in sizeincrease in size and numberSprint training can cause a shift from type _____ to type _____ fibers. -IIa, IIx -IIx, I -IIa, I -I, IIaI, IIaAfter aerobic training, more existing capillaries are now open in exercising muscle vasculature. This phenomenon is called -angiogenesis -capillary-to-fiber attraction -capillarization -capillary recruitmentcapillary recruitmentAfter aerobic training, increased capillary formation and capillary recruitment combine to lead to -increased capillary density -increased mitochondrial reproduction -increased oxidative enzyme activity -increased myoglobin synthesisincreased capillary densityHeart enlargement as a result of endurance training is a medical risk and should be attended to immediately. -True -FalseFalseA slower rate of glycogen utilization is -a beneficial adaptation conferred by anaerobic training -one reason that untrained muscle fibers are less efficient -associated with detraining of muscle fibers -a beneficial adaptation conferred by aerobic traininga beneficial adaptation conferred by aerobic trainingAn individual who exhibits large improvements with training is termed a ________ responder. -high -good -fast -lowhighPlasma volume increases during the first two weeks of aerobic training because -plasma protein synthesis increases -sodium excretion increases -fluid ingestion increases -antidiuretic hormone secretion decreasesplasma protein synthesis increasesAfter aerobic training, submaximal pulmonary ventilation will be _________, and maximal pulmonary ventilation will be ___________. -increased, decreased -increased, increased -decreased, increased -decreased, decreaseddecreased, increasedWhich of the following statements correctly describes the change in cardiac output in response to aerobic training? -maximal cardiac output increases -resting cardiac output increases -maximal cardiac output stays the same -submaximal cardiac output decreasesmaximal cardiac output increasesThe changes in muscle function observed after aerobic training are due entirely to increased strength because enzymatic activity remains largely unchanged. -True -FalseFalseWhich of the following is NOT a mechanism of increased stroke volume after endurance training? -increased LV wall thickness and chamber volume -increased resting and submaximal heart rate -increased filling time -increased plasma volumeincreased resting and submaximal heart rateHigh-intensity exercise such as resistance exercise leads to greater cross-sectional area in _______________fibers. -type IIx -both b and c -type I -type IIa -all of theseboth b and cAfter aerobic training, blood flow through exercising muscles increases as the result of increased capillary formation and capillary recruitment. -False -TrueTrueCardiorespiratory endurance is important for -all of these -muscular strength -concentration and alertness -agility and movementall of theseAt a given submaximal exercise intensity, HR will be higher after endurance training. -True -FalseFalseAerobic training leads to _____________ in lactate threshold. -no change -a decrease of approximately 5% -an increase of approximately 30% -an increase of approximately 10%an increase of approximately 30%With aerobic training, the lactate threshold moves up to a higher % VO2max -False -TrueTrueIf your postexercise heart rate returns to normal faster than it used to, this means that you are more aerobically fit than you used to be. -True -FalseTruePlasma volume decreases after endurance training (due to chronic sweating), but red blood cell production increases. -False -TrueFalseWhich chamber of the heart adapts most to chronic endurance training? -left atrium -left ventricle -right atrium -right ventricleleft ventricleHigh-intensity interval training is not as effective as chronic endurance training. -False -TrueFalseWhich blood biomarker would likely be increased with overtraining syndrome? -glucose -urea -Na+ -bicarbonateureaDuring rehabilitation from an injury, which of these is best for minimizing muscle atrophy? -concentric training -eccentric training -isokinetic training -isometric trainingisometric trainingDuring detraining, muscle endurance decreases due to all of the following factors EXCEPT -oxidative enzyme activity decrease -impaired acid-balance regulation -glycogen content decrease -glycolytic enzyme activity decreaseglycolytic enzyme activity decreaseExercise intensity of ______% is necessary for maintaining aerobic capacity. -70 -90 -60 -8070Tapering can often lead to deconditioning and should not be used by athletes. -False -TrueFalseWhich of these is an unhealthy degree of training? -overtraining -overreaching -acute overload -undertrainingovertrainingOne of the dangerous effects of excessive cortisol release is -increased resting heart rate -compromised immune function -high blood pressure -systemic inflammationcompromised immune functionTraining intensity and training volume should be inversely related. -True -FalseTrueIn the realm of training for sport, more is always better. -True -FalseFalseAerobic endurance is far more affected by detraining than anaerobic speed and agility. -False -TrueTrueIf performance briefly suffers and then markedly improves, this is likely the result of overreaching. -True -FalseTrueSevere overtraining syndrome can take ____________ of rest to resolve and heal fully. -one to two weeks -a month or more -five to seven days -one to two daysa month or moreOvertraining is easily diagnosed and treated. -True -FalseFalseOverreaching and overtraining are synonymous terms. -False -TrueFalseIf overreaching is correctly done, performance will -increase, then decrease further -decrease, then increase further -decrease -increasedecrease, then increase furtherThe unexplained, and often chronic, decline in performance and overall health that stems from overly intense training is called -overtraining -acute overload -overuse injury -overreachingovertrainingAll of the following are true about tapering EXCEPT -allows time for muscles to repair -allows for restoration of energy reserves -may cause small decreases in VO2max -ranges from 4 to 28 daysmay cause small decreases in VO2maxAs training volume or intensity continues to increase from normal, -performance will simply plateau -performance will continue to increase -performance will continue to decrease -performance will likely peak and then eventually decreaseperformance will likely peak and then eventually decreaseTo build aerobic capacity, which training strategy would be best? -high volume, high intensity -low volume, high intensity -low volume, low intensity -high volume, low intensityhigh volume, low intensityWhich of these is NOT a primary symptom of overtraining syndrome? -lack of mental focus -enhanced desire to train -change in appetite -mood disturbancesenhanced desire to trainWhich of the following is an important strategy for endurance athletes to avoid overtraining? -ensure adequate electrolyte intake, with salt tablets if necessary -ensure adequate caloric/carbohydrate intake to replenish glycogen -increase fat intake for extensive energy storage -increase iron intake to increase oxygen-carrying capacityensure adequate caloric/carbohydrate intake to replenish glycogenBicarbonate loading is considered an ergogenic aid because of its effects on -strength gains -sprint performance -ultra-endurance performance -buffering capacity of blood and tissuesbuffering capacity of blood and tissuesCaffeine ingestion before and during exercise is associated with enhanced performance in endurance activities -False -TrueTrueIf well designed, a single study can be enough for drawing definitive conclusions about an ergogenic aid. -False -TrueFalseCaffeine is not a nutrient but is commonly found in beverages and foods, and its effects on performance are due to its role as a -all of these -CNS stimulant -lipolytic agent -diuretic -glycogen-sparing agentCNS stimulantWhich of these is NOT a major health risk of steroid use? -liver damage -renal failure -cancer -heart attack and strokerenal failureAn ergogenic response is likely NOT the result of -endurance training -resistance training -ergolytic substances -the placebo effectergolytic substancesThe effects of anabolic steroids most closely reflect the natural effects of -estrogen -testosterone -EPO -IGF-1testosteroneSupplementation with bicarbonate -is most effective in doses of 100 mg/kg body weight -improves performance in events lasting less than 1 minute -improves performance in events lasting more than 10 minutes -can cause cramps and bloatingcan cause cramps and bloatingβ-blockers are riskiest when taken -regularly -under the guidance of a physician -once or twice a year -occasionallyregularlyThe results of studies on creatine loading are examples of -none of these -the principle of individuality -an intracellular buffer -high responders and low responders -the effect of osmosis on muscle cell water content -all of theseall of theseBecause of caffeine's effects on fluid balance in the body, it could also be called a(n) -aldosterone mimetic -renin inhibitor -ADH mimetic -diureticdiureticNitrate ingestion may help improve performance by -reducing time to exhaustion -improving mitochondrial efficiency -decreasing production of nitric oxide -increasing oxygen consumptionimproving mitochondrial efficiencyEPO is a safe alternative to blood doping. -True -FalseFalseWhich of these is NOT a critical element of successful blood doping? -must reinfuse blood no more than 1 week after withdrawal -must wait 5 to 6 weeks before reinfusion -drawn blood must be frozen -must reinfuse about 1 L whole bloodmust reinfuse blood no more than 1 week after withdrawalUnlike use of prescription drugs to treat an illness, use of dietary supplements to improve performance is not subject to the placebo effect. -False -TrueFalseCreatine supplementation would be most helpful for which athlete? -baseball player -golfer -track sprinter -triathletetrack sprinterBlood doping appears to be effective when blood volumes greater than 900 ml are infused. -False -TrueTrueA(n) ____________ is needed in studies on ergogenic aids to ensure that the possible impact of the placebo effect is taken into consideration -independent variable -none of these -all of these -bias balancer -post hoc test -control groupcontrol groupA double-blind experimental design ensures that -the researchers are aware of the treatments but make doubly sure that -none of the subjects are aware -only the subjects are unaware of the two treatments they are receiving -all subjects and researchers associated with the study are unaware of the treatments being tested until data are collected and analyzed -all of these -none of theseall subjects and researchers associated with the study are unaware of the treatments being tested until data are collected and analyzedWhat is (are) the risk(s) associated with consuming dietary supplements? -They might not contain any active ingredients. -They might not work as advertised. -They might be contaminated with harmful substances. -none of these -all of these -They might result in a positive doping test.all of theseWhich of these statements best describes the effects of amphetamines on the body? -ergogenic but dangerous -non-ergogenic but relatively safe -ergolytic and life threatening -performance enhancing and safeergogenic but dangerousIn men, steroid use can lead to -enhanced sperm count -increased testosterone production -testicular hypertrophy -higher estrogen productionhigher estrogen productionA coach's pep talk could be considered an ergogenic aid. -False -TrueTrueThe primary action of a diuretic is to -enhance muscle fiber cross-sectional area -enhance urine production -prevent excessive sodium loss in sweat -stimulate the sympathetic nervous systemenhance urine productionWhich of these is NOT a proposed benefit of taking amphetamines? -delayed fatigue -weight loss -enhancement of every aspect of performance -decreased performance anxietydecreased performance anxietyWhich of the following statements about creatine is NOT true? -It is supplied in the diet by meat and fish. -It is synthesized in the liver. -Long-term use has been proven to be safe. -It serves as an intracellular buffer.Long-term use has been proven to be safe.According to research findings, hGH would be most helpful as an ergogenic aid for -older men -young untrained women -young untrained men -young trained menolder menBasic height and weight do not provide sufficient information to gauge an athlete's fitness for competition. -True -FalseTrueThe majority of daily water intake actually comes from water content in food. -True -FalseFalseAfter carbohydrate loading, muscles will contain approximately ______ as much glycogen as before. -half -10 times -four times -two timestwo timesThe most widely applied field technique for assessing body composition is -DEXA -skinfold fat thickness -underwater weighing -air plethysmographyskinfold fat thicknessFor every gram of carbohydrate stored as glycogen, _______ grams of water are also stored. -2.6 -1.2 -4.3 -3.52.6_____________ should always be the goal when assessing body weight and composition. -The lowest possible body fat -Optimal performance -Aesthetics -The greatest amount of fat-free massOptimal performanceWhich of these is most directly influenced by the amount of stored glycogen? -performance time -VO2max -cardiac output -blood pressureperformance timeWhich family of vitamins is critical for cellular metabolic processes? -A, D, E, and K -fat-soluble vitamins -antioxidant vitamins -B complex vitaminsB complex vitaminsWhen an athlete is training very hard -protein intake greater than 1.7 g per kilogram body weight is ideal -protein intake approximately 0.80 g per kilogram body weight is still acceptable -protein intake needs to increase with intensity of exercise -protein intake approximately 10 to 15% of total daily kilocalories is bestprotein intake approximately 10 to 15% of total daily kilocalories is bestThe most abundant mineral in the body is -sodium -iron -calcium -phosphoruscalciumAlthough carbohydrate molecules can come in many different sizes, the body must convert them all into ________________ before it can use them. -polysaccharides -monosaccharides -oligosaccharides -disaccharidesmonosaccharidesThe most potent dietary antioxidant vitamin is -C -E -D -B6EWater loss (dehydration) is the easiest and safest way to lose weight quickly. -True -FalseFalseWhen excess carbohydrates are consumed, they are -stored as glycogen -excreted in the feces -converted to protein -excreted in the urinestored as glycogenIdeal CHO concentration in sport drinks is approximately 6%. -False -TrueTrueAs fat-free mass increases, it will help optimize performance in all sports. -False -TrueFalseWhich of these daily recommended nutrient intakes is correct? -saturated fat: less than 20% of total kilocalorie intake -carbohydrate: 55 to 60% of total kilocalorie intake -protein: 3.5 g per kilogram body weight -vitamins: 5% of total kilocalorie intakecarbohydrate: 55 to 60% of total kilocalorie intakeIn which one of these sports are women most susceptible to the female athlete triad? -basketball -softball -gymnastics -field hockeygymnasticsWhich type of vegetarian diet will most likely lead to the best performance? -lactovegetarian -lacto-ovovegetarian -ovovegetarian -veganlacto-ovovegetarianHigh glycemic index (GI) foods are best for preexercise snacks. -False -TrueFalseWhich of these is NOT true of weight loss-associated chronic fatigue? -It is unpleasant but does not interfere with performance. -It is similar to overtraining. -It may result from inadequate glycogen reserves. -It may also be associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.It is unpleasant but does not interfere with performance.CHO intake within two hours of finishing exercise will help optimize glycogen resynthesis. -True -FalseTrueFor optimal weight loss, there should be a caloric deficit of 600 to 800 kcal per day. -True -FalseFalseWhich of these is NOT a prescribed mode of aerobic endurance exercise? -cycling -swimming -golfing -rowinggolfingAs little as______ minutes of continuous sitting has been found to negatively affect physiology. -60 -10 -90 -3030Optimal exercise duration for aerobic health benefits is -20 to 30 min per day -50 to 60 min per day -10 min per day -over 60 min per day20 to 30 min per dayA good warm-up can reduce -force of muscle contraction -muscle and joint soreness -flexibility -submaximal heart ratemuscle and joint sorenessAccording to exercise prescription guidelines, exercise frequency should be at least five or six times per week for basic health and aerobic benefits. -False -TrueFalseTom is 57 years old. He lost his father to heart disease at 62 and quit smoking 3 months ago. His blood pressure is 132/74 and his total cholesterol is 247 mg/dl. How many risk factors for CAD does Tom have? -4 -1 - 3 -23Everyone should undergo a medical examination before starting an exercise program. -True -FalseFalseHow is a proper starting point determined for resistance training? -15 reps at 3/4 1RM does not lead to fatigue -5 reps at 1/2 1RM leads to fatigue -10 reps at 1/2 1RM leads to fatigue -1 rep at 1RM leads to pain10 reps at 1/2 1RM leads to fatigueExercise modes should be -difficult to perform correctly -enjoyable -intimidating -ideal for only one type of weatherenjoyableWhich of these recreational activities would also be good for endurance training? -bowling -softball -hiking -golfhikingAerobic exercise below the minimum threshold will not yield significant improvements in aerobic capacity. -True -FalseTrueThe overall minimal amount of exercise necessary for producing physiological benefits is called the -frequency -duration -mode -thresholdthresholdWhich of the following measurements would be considered obese? -height of 6 feet and weight of 190 pounds in a women -waist circumference of 38 inches in men -waist circumference of 34 inches in women -waist-to-hip ratio of 0.87 in womenwaist-to-hip ratio of 0.87 in womenRegular exercise counteracts the negative effects of prolonged sitting. -False -TrueFalsePreconditioning often uses common modes of aerobic exercise. -True -FalseTrueResearch has shown that creatine supplementation combined with resistance training leads to significant strength gains. -True -FalseTrue