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Psych Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (38)
The idea that one's consciousness continually changes, fluctuates and wanders characterizes William James's concept that consciousness is
Freud called the contents of our waking life that spill into our dreams
Hypnosis owes its beginnings to the work of which of the following?
Franz Anton Mesmer
When the UCS is removed and the CS is presented alone for a period of time, what will occur?
Pavlov found that meat powder placed on a dog's tongue will make the dog salivate. In Pavlov's terms, the meat powder is
an unconditoned stimulus
Thorndike's work with hungry cats in a puzzle box lead him to attribute the cat's learning to a principle he called what?
The Law of Effect
The initial stage of learning a response is called
When a researcher does not reinforce every correct response that an organism makes, it is referred to as
A rat is reinforced for the first lever pressing response that occurs, on the average after 60 seconds. Which schedule is the rat on
classical conditioning is a type of learning in which
a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus
The structure of the ear that transduced sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
The sequence of eye structures that light passes through en route to the retina is
cornea, pupil, lens
Rather than provide details about the party she just attended, Patty tried to give her overall impression. Operating on the assumption of ____, that the whole may be greater than the mere sum of its parts.
The purpoe of the control group is to
isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted
naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
they can show casual relationships
Dr. Kincaid was interested in the topic of autistic savants (individuals with limited abilities in many areas, but with an exceptional talent in one specific area). In the initial part of the investigation, Dr. Kincaid carefully observed and compiled detailed files on three individuals who were autistic savants. Dr. Kincaid is conducting
case study research
Laura answered a series of written questions that asked about her attitudes and opinions on a number of current issues. The method of data collection that was being used in this case was
When two variables are linked and their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
The standard deviation is a measure of
the amount of variability in data set
The experimental group
consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
The correlation coefficient is a measure of
the degree of relationship between two variables
In a discussion with your professor, she tells you that she believes that the focus of psychological study should be to break the conscious experience into its basic elements. Which of the following historical schools of thought is your professor's idea MOST indicative of?
Oliver is studying motivation in chimpanzees. His roommate doesn't think that Oliver's research will produce much useful information about human motivation because he believes that information from animal studies will not provide meaningful information about human experiences. Oliver's roommate apparently has
a humanistic perspective
which psychologist would have been most likely to assert that "free will is an illusion?
Structuralism is the historical school of psychology that asserted that the purpose of psychology was to
discover the smaller elements that comprise consciousness
The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is
The person who established America's first psychological research laboratory and who launched America's first psychology journal was
The school of psychology that suggests psychologists should study only what can be objectively observed is
Who is Wilhelm Wundt?
founded the first experimental laboratory
Another name for the behavioral approach in psychology is
stimulus response psychology
Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of
Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor's views reflect those seen in
the humanistic perspective
What is a major principles of operant conditioning
humans and other animals tend to repeat responses followed by positive outcomes
Stressing that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure is associated with the approach to psychology known as _________.
When, during a psychology test, you try to remember something your instructor said in class last week, you are using what researchers call
The memory system that contains the memory fo how to type on a typewriter or drive an automobile is the
procedural memory system
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