62 terms

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease Chapter 1 Part 2

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BM
bowel movement
BP
blood pressure
CA
cancer
CAD
coronary artery disease
CBC
complete blood count
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CVA
cerebral vascular accident (stroke)
CXR
chest X-ray
Dx
diagnosis
GI
gastrointestinal
ICU
intensive care unit
IM
intramuscular
IV
intravenous
MI
myocardial infarction (heart attack)
NPO
nothing by mouth
P.O.
orally
p.r.n.
when needed
Q
every
SOB
shortness of breath
STAT
immediately
t.i.d.
three times a day
ER/ED
emergency room/emergency department
Rhinoplasty
surgical repair of the nose
Mathematical language of medicine
the metric system
Metabolism
All the chemical operations going on within the body, life-sustaining reactions inside the body
Anabolism
The process which simpler compounds are built up and used for growth, repair, and reproduction
Catabolism
The process which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances for energy
Homeostasis
The physiological process that monitors and maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium
Negative feedback loop
Brings the body back to its set point during a physiological change (temp. goes up, the body sweats to bring it back down)
Positive feedback
Increases the magnitude of a change in homeostasis
Signs of disease
Definitive, objective, measurable indicators of an illness
Vital signs
Signs vital to life, pulse (heart rate), blood pressure, body temperature, and respiratory rate
Symptoms of disease
Perceived by the patient, are subjective and difficult to measure
Syndrome
A set of symptoms and signs associated with and characteristic of one particular disease
Diagnosis
Identification of a disease determined by studying a patient's signs, symptoms, history, and results of tests
Chief complaint
Why a person went to the doctor
Prognosis
The prediction of the outcome of a disease
Acute disease
Rapid onset of disease, with severe symptoms for a short duration
Chronic disease
A disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time
Remission
Signs and symptoms of a chronic disease disappear
Relapses
Recurrences of a disease
Exacerbation
Signs and smptoms acutely flare up
Terminal
Prognosis is death
Pathogenic
Disease producing
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
Breaks down waste products and helps produce vitamin K
Body's first defense
Skin
Body's second defense
Immune response
Inflammatory response
When tissues in the body are injured
Signs of inflammation
Redness, increased temperature at site of injury, swelling (edema), and pain
Specific immune response
Activated when your body is attacked by a germ that previously entered your body
Allergic/hypersensitivity reaction
Immune system goes too far causing tissue damage and impairing normal function
Routes of germ transmission
Vectors, contact transmission, common vehicle, and airborn
Vector borne
Organism is carried by an insect or other animal, by living inside the host or living on the host
Biological vector
Disease-carrying host, such as a rat, mosquito, or fly, that spreads infectious disease through bites
Mechanical vector
A living organism capable of transmitting infection by carrying the disease agent on its external body parts or surfaces
Contact transmission
Spread of disease by direct or indirect contact with person or contaminated objects
Common vehicle transmission
Occurs when consumable goods (blood, blood products, IV fluids, food, vegetables or seafood) become contaminated
Airborne transmission
The spread of droplets that contain a pathogen
Chain of infection
Creation of a source of infection, the transportation of the pathogen, entry into the body
Single important practice to reduce transmission of infection
Hand washing
PPE
Personal protective equipment
Gloves, isolation gowns, masks, gogles, face shields, and respiratiory protection masks
PPE