Sociology final

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Where have the most noticeable fertility rate declines taken place since the 1950s?
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Terms in this set (122)
How long would it take the world to grow its population from 8 billion to 9 billionPeople?10 yearsWhat are Weber's three different types of authority, and the characteristics associated with each?Rational legal authority- a form of authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually written down and are often very complex. Traditional authority- derives from customs, habits and social structures. Whenpower passes from one generation to another Charismatic authority- derived from a gift of grace, the power of one's personality, or when the leader claims that his authority is derived from a "higher power" (e.g. God) that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-legal authority.What are the different forms of governments as well as the characteristics/examples associated with each of them?Monarchy- form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nominally lodged with an individual, who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication. Democracy- is a form of government in which the right to govern or sovereignty is held by the majority of citizens within a country or a state. Totalitarianism- political system that strives to regulate nearly every aspect of public and private life. Oligarchy- a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family, military or religious hegemony. Communist state- a state with a form of government characterized by single-party rule of a Communist party and a professed allegiance to an ideology of communism as the guiding principle of the state. Theocracy- a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler, or in a broader sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided.Which state in the United States has the greatest/fewest number of electoral votes?Greatest- California, Least- Delawarepirate party and its dominant political agendaThe Pirate Party strives to reform laws regarding copyright and patents. The agenda also includes support for a strengthening of the right to privacy, both on the Internet and in everyday life, and the transparency of state administration. The Party has intentionally chosen to be block independent on the traditional left-right scale to pursue their political agenda with all mainstream parties.observable trends regarding voting patterns and inequalitygender, age, race and classdominant characteristics of political parties in USDemocracy rule "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority." The power of government is held by the people. The people give power to leaders they elect to represent them and serve their interests. The representatives are responsible for helping all the people in the country, not just a few people.tyranny of the majorityThe potential of a majority to monopolize power for its own gain to the detriment of minority rights and interests.What are the major characteristics of the political party system in SwedenMulti-party systemprejudice, discrimination and biasPrejudice- coming to a judgment on a subject before learning where the preponderance of evidence actually lies. Discrimination- actual mistreatment of a group or individual based upon some criteria or characteristic. Bias- Post-judgments or beliefs and viewpoints derived from experience that maintain unfair or stereotypical perspectives on a group of peopleStructural RacismA system in which public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms work in various, often reinforcing ways to perpetuate racial group inequityGenocideDeliberate extermination of a racial or cultural groupWhat are the beliefs and behaviors that are characteristic of racism?race is the primary determinant of human capacities (prejudice or bias) a certain race is inherently superior or inferior to others (prejudice or bias) individuals should be treated differently according to their racial classification (prejudice or bias) the actual treating of individuals differently based on their racial classification (discrimination)Which medical conditions are not associated with Europeans as a low-risk group?Coronary heart disease Dementia Lung cancer, prostate cancer Multiple sclerosis OsteoporosisWhat trends have been uncovered by the General Social Survey with respect to the favorability toward laws toward interracial marriage?In recent yearsm the historical public opinion of approval of interracial marrage in the united states has increased and that historical public opinion of disapproval of interracial marriage has decreasedWhat is racial profiling, and the characteristics associated with it?the act of suspecting, targeting or discriminating against a person on the basis of their ethnicity or religion, Targeting minority populations and using negative stereotypesWhat is historical racism, color-blind racism, and individual-level racism?Historical Racism- a form of inequality caused by past racism, affecting the present generation through deficits in the formal education and other kinds of preparation in the parents' generation, and, through primarily unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population. Color-Blind racism- racial classification does not affect a person's socially created opportunities.Which pairs of concepts are discussed in the textbook to understand the concept of race as a social fact?Examining race issues in 2 countries, brazil and the united statesraceIdentity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.EthnicityIdentity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.Ethnic classificationhow people are classified into groupsCompare and contrast endogamy with exogamy.when one marries someone within one's own group. Exogamy is when one marries someone outside one's own group.lifecycle phases of the modern familycourtship marriage children divorcde Death an widowingWhat are some of the "new developments" as far as the modern family structure is concerned?One-parent households Cohabitation Same sex unions ChildfreeWhat is unique about France, Spain, Germany, Turkey, Argentina, and Russia when it comes to state ceremonies of marriage and religious ceremonies?In France, Spain, Germany, Turkey, Argentina, and Russia, it is necessary to be married by the state before having a religious ceremonyno-fault divorcea divorce granted without either party having to prove the other party guilty of misconductWhat are the collateral consequences of widowhood and divorce?Reduced healthWhat U.S. Supreme Court case made endogamy laws unconstitutional?Loving v Virginia 1967What were the conclusions of the Andersson research regarding same-sex andheterosexual unions in Sweden and Norway?attribute the higher divorce rate to a combination of factors, including: less support from the community and less encouragement or pressure from family and friends to make the marriage last.Lord Hardwicks's Marriage ActAll marriages in any place other than in a church or public chapel, and without banns or licence, were to be 'null and void to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever'.Who made the distinction between the "sacred" and the "profane"?emile DurkheimWhat is meant by viewing religion as "supernature"?Collective beliefs and rituals of a groupWhat is the "church-sect" typology, and who developed it?Church sect typology is a continuum along which religions fall, ranging from the protest-like orientation of sects to the equilibrium maintaining churches. Max weberAccording to Durkheim and the structural-functionalist approach, what are the major functions of religion?social cohesion - religion helps maintain social solidarity through shared rituals and beliefs social control - religious based morals and norms help maintain conformity and control in society; religion can also legitimize the political system providing meaning and purpose - religion can provide answers to existential questionsWhat does it mean that sociology does not exist in a vacuum?Sociology does not exist in a vacuum Sociology, while unique in terms of its scope, is very much interdisciplinary in its focus and its orientationWhat are the characteristics of the research process?Make observations, develop general theories, gather data to test predictions, think of interesting questions, formulate hypothesis, develop testable predictions, refine, alter expand or reject hypothesisWhat is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the Schrodinger thought experiment regarding the cat? Why are these important to sociology?The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is a law in quantum mechanics that limits how accurately you can measure two related variables Specifically it says that the more accurately you measure the momentum (or velocity) of a particle, the less accurately you can know its position Schrodinger thought experiment regarding the cat showed that nothing is certain until we observe it to be so These are both important to sociology because it proved that you don't know the condition or the position of something until it is observed to beWhat are the two different ways that we can view human social behavior relative to uncertainty and unpredictability?We can look at human behavior as a set of discrete, separate, distinct, and unique (categorical events) located at a specific and single point in spacetime (blending space and time) that appear to be quasi-random or transitory in nature wherein there is no underlying or discernable pattern Low predictability, high uncertainty We can look at human behavior as a continuum of theme-based occurrences that result in behavioural trajectories, trends, and patterns that form constellations of crystallised behaviors over and through spacetime High predictability, low uncertaintyHow does knowledge develop over time, according to Thomas Kuhn?One block of knowledge is built apon a previous block of knowledge and so on •the development of knowledge is both cumulative and incrementalin its approachWhat is a scientific revolution, and how does it come about?•Gradual build-up of anomalies forces the dominant paradigm to a critical mass •Alternative (new) paradigm replaces the previously prevailing (old) paradigmWhat is the difference between a paradigm and a paradox when it comes to thedevelopment of knowledge?Paradigm is a dominant or prevailing mode of thinking within a scientific discipline Paradox is a statement that is somewhat self contradictoryWhat is the principle of incommensurability?the new paradigm cannot be proven or disproven using the principles of the old paradigm, and vice versa ("Adsum hoc estnunc" - "I am here, this is now")What is the difference between normal and revolutionary science?Normal science- puzzle solving activities and efforts are oriented towards maintaining the dominance of the existing, prevailing paradigm By implication his work allows for the ideas, concepts and principles from one scientific discipline to be potentially incorporated into another in order to expand the explanatory power of an existing paradigm or disciplineWhat is the difference between creationism, intelligent design, evolution, and the "big bang" in terms of their use as scientific paradigms?Creationism- the religious belief that nature, and aspects such as the universe, earth, life and humans originated with supernatural acts of divine creation Intelligent design- •Intelligent design is an argument intended to demonstrate that living organisms were created in more or less their present forms by an "intelligent designer" (just who is the intelligent designer?) Evolution- change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations Big bang- that all of the current and past matter in the Universe came into existence at the same time, roughly 13.8 billion years agoWhat is meant by the concept, the social construction of reality?A major idea is that over time*, individuals who are engaged in the process of social interaction within any social arrangement fundamentally create representations and constructs of each other's actions and behaviorsHow is the social construction of knowledge similar to the social construction of reality?•So when we talk about the social construction of knowledge, we're also talking about the social construction of reality They are one in the sameWhat are some of the traits that humans possess that make us distinctively human, and which separate us from all other species of animals?•Cognitions - our thoughts and our thinking; self-reflexive activity - we as human can think about our thoughts and our thinking (only we as a species can do that) •Critical life events - singular occurrences that happen to us that change our world view or the trajectories of our lives •Feelings - our emotional states toward other people, events, and ourselves •Motivations - explain why people or animals initiate, continue or extinguish a certain behavior at a particular time •Perceptions - how we see the world and other people, events and things in it •Attitudes - a cognitive orientation that often precedes a resultant or projected behavior; behavior is a function of our attitude toward the behavior itself •Behaviors - overt actions that are oriented toward obtaining a desired result, goal, or outcome •All these things help us define how we view the world, who we are within the world, and how we all fit in it togetherWhat are the biological prerequisites for life on Earth?"Stardust"- thne chemical ingredients for life, hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygen Water DNA Energy, in form of heatWhat the are the prerequisites for social life on earth?People- any form of social organization or social arrangement is predicted on peole, just like you and me ("stardust" component) Social interaction- the basis of any type of exchange relationship ("DNA" component) Social organization- how social groups are structured ("water" component) Social bonds- tie people together in different forms of social arrangements so that we are integrated into society anf are regulated by it at the same time "Energy"What is the difference between the theory of abiogenesis and the theory of biogenesis?Major idea for abiogenisis is that organic life actually life arose gradually from inorganic molecules, with "building blocks" like amino acids forming first and then combining Biogenisis- argues that life originates from pre existing living matter by means of reproduction and is a direct refutation of the theory of abiogenesis. "Omne vivum ex vivo" all life is from lifeWhat was the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis?•Major idea - organic life actually life arose gradually from inorganic molecules, with "building blocks" like amino acids forming first and then combining to make complex polymers (simple -> complex) - theory of abiogenesis •Opposed to the "metabolism-first" hypothesis, placing metabolic networks before DNA or RNAWhat was the essence of the Miller-Urey experiment?•The Miller-Urey experiment provided the first evidence that organic molecules needed for life could be formed from inorganic components, (although other scientists support the "RNA world hypothesis", which suggests that the first life was self-replicating RNA) •combined warm water with a mixture of four gases—water vapor, methane, ammonia, and molecular hydrogen—and pulsed the "atmosphere" with electrical chargesWhat does it mean that "societies progress from the simple and the uniform, to the complex and the multiform" with respect to the work of both Spencer and Darwin?Societies become more complex with the addition of more peopleWhat is the function of DNA, and what are four amino acids required for itsDevelopment?The function of DNA is establishing our genetic structure and "sets the stage" as far as our behavior is concerned Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosineWhat is the difference between a haplogroup and a haplotype?Haplogroup is a genetic population of people who share a common ancestor on the patrilineal or the matriline Haplotype is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parentWhat are the four major haplogroups?European African Native American AsianWhat is meant by the "tree of life", and what makes up the "tree of life" according to the two-domain theory and the three-domain theory?Luca at base, eukarya, bacteria and archaea. •The latter two— the prokaryotes— share similarities in being unicellular and lack a nucleus, and are differentiated from one another by subtle chemical and metabolic differences •Eukarya, on the other hand, are the complex, multicellular life forms comprised of membrane-encased cells, each incorporating a nucleus containing the genetic code as well as the mitochondria 'organelles' powering the cell's metabolismWhat was LUCA and why is LUCA important to the development of the tree of life?LUCA is our last universal common ancestor - it is a single-celled bacterium-like organism that is the common ancestor and foundation of all life on Earth It is important to the development of the tree of life because LUCA gave rise to two kinds of simple cells : bacteria and archaeaWhere was LUCA originally found?Galapagos islands in hot deep sea ventsWhat were the significant events beginning with the formation of the Earth some 4.5 billion years ago that led to the diversification of life from 3.6 billion years ago to the present?Diversification of life, LUCA- first DNA/protein life, RNA, Pre-RNA, prebiotic chemistry, stable hydrosphere and formation of earthWhat is the percentage of DNA similarity among humans?99%What is the percentage of similarity between human DNA and the DNA of a cat and aBanana?Cat is 90% banana is 60%Who was Mitochondrial Eve, and why is she important?Term for genetics and human evolution, refers to a womanWhy is the concept of "time" important to sociology?•Time* is a common reference point to describe the movement and development of societies, how long it takes for them to development, and how long they last •Time* (and how we reconcile it) is a part of culture - our culture is "time-bound" •We even try to "turn back time*" to see what the Universe, and other societies and cultures looked like earlier in time, at their very beginning - "turning back the clock" •Time* is relevant to the onset, development, and maintenance of interaction patterns between people, and even in estimating the age of the Earth •Time* can be used to map and chart the growth and development of institutions, societies, and civilizationsWhere is the geographical area where human species were thought to have originated?Africa or South AfricaHow does genomics allow us to trace the migration patterns of haplogroups andhaplotypes around the world?We can trace and map human migration based on the movement of haplogroups and genetic populations, and determine where there was the greatest opportunity for social life to occur and develop over timeHow do the issues of resiliency and sustainability meaningfully contribute to a discussion of social life and the ability of the human species to demonstrate adaptability and Versatility?Common sense. Resiliency and sustainability are the describes how people get back up in the face of adversity and adapt to change over timeWhat is the "Minkowski Space", and why is it important to the concept of "spacetime"?4 dimensional continuum woven into spacetime . continuous smooth dented curved deformed by presence of matter and energyWhy do we need to talk about the intersection of both time and space when it comes to the social interaction process?Facilitates the social construction of realityWhat was the Cambrian Explosion? When did it occur? What is its significance?Time when most of the major groups of animals first appeared in the fossil record 541 million years ago marks the advent (at least into direct evidence) of virtually all major groups of modern animals—and all within the minuscule span, geologically speaking, of a few million yearsWhy are tardigrades known as "extremophiles", and how are they important to the studyof sociology with respect to life in different environments?•are amazing little creatures that have contributed to the process of evolution and have shown tremendous survival capabilities in extremely diverse environment (extremophiles) •they can literally survive anywhere for prolonged lengths of timeWhat are the differences between eons, eras, periods, and epochs? Where are we now interms of each of them with respect to geological "time"?Period :A unit of time shorter than an era but longer than epoch. epoch = A unit of time shorter than a period but longer than an age. Eons : a unit of time equal to a billion of years Eras : a fixed point in time from which a series of years is reckoned Phanerozoic,Where have we spent the most time relative to the different eons? PhanerozoicPhanerozoicWhy is the Anthropocene epoch considered to be unique when compared to the HoloceneEpoch?Global climate change and ecosystem changes caused by human activity- holocene was the age of man and the men were responsible for this human activityWhat are meant by Anthropocene "markers"?Nuclear weapons, fossil fuels. Changed geology, fertilizers, new materials, global warming, mass extinctionWhat are the different "versions" of man (in the generic sense), or mankind, using theLinnaeus taxonomy system?Homo habilis, homo erectus, homo heidelbergensis, homo neanderthalensis, early modern humans, homo sapiensWhat is an extinction level event, and what would be its impact on society with respect tothe issue of biodiversity?Widespread and rapid decrease in biodiversity on earth based upon a single catastrophic event or series of catastrophic events whose effects build up in cumulative fashion to reduce biodiversityWhat was the name of the stretch of land that once connected northeast Siberia with the North American continent? Why was it important, and how was it used?Beringia, also called Bering Land Bridge Humans first passed from asia to populate the americas To bridge the gap between north america and asiaWhat is the curvature of spacetime known as?Known as gravity is based on mass of the objectsHow do we reconcile the passage of time on Earth?•Time* (and how we reconcile it) is a part of culture - our culture is "time-bound" •Time* is relevant to the onset, development, and maintenance of interaction patterns between people, and even in estimating the age of the EarthWhat is the "cosmic calendar"?A scale in which the 13.7 billion yr lifespan of our universe is mapped onto a single yearWhat is the difference between "big" time and "little" time?Location and timeWhat are the trends in population growth due to agriculture up until 1950?Its growingWhat are the three options with respect to the potential fate of any species, includinghuman beings?adapt, move or dieWhat were the major trends that gave rise to the development of behavioral innovation inthe Middle Stone Age in Africa?Increasing innovation, wider social networks good for trade, complex symbolic activity, thinking and planning, greater capacity to adjust to new environmentsWhat is the relationship between the passage of time, evolutionary change, and adaptiveBenefits?Ability to walk upright climb trees etcWhy is the passage of time on Earth so important to sociology as a scientific discipline?The passage of time chronicles the development of societies and civilizations as they develop, sustain themselves, and ultimately wane over time - it gives us a sense of history and a glimpse of the "potential" future •The passage of time is a barometer of social change and the impact of globalization •Our measurement of time may be stable and waiting for time to pass may seem like an eternity, but time never stands still •The passage of time allows us to see how social movements emerge as a response to social issues, and how social issues become defined as such •The passage of time illustrates the dynamic nature of society and society's tendency toward a state of dynamic equilibrium or functional social conflict •The passage of time impacts our social interactions as we move through the life's course, along some type of developmental trajectory •The exploration and the passage of time on Earth illustrates how humankind, and its associated social forms, social arrangements, and social institutions, are a relatively "new thing" in terms of the passage of time since "the beginning"What is meant by the process of globalization?Allows for the expansion and proliferation of diverse types of social, economic and political arrangementsHow old are cities, where did they first get established, and for what purposes were theyUsed?First appeared around 3500 BC E River valleys of the nile, tigres and euphrates and indus Used for science, art, cosmopolitan cultureWhat is conurbation as a process?An agglomeration of towns or cities into an unbroken urban environmentmegalopolis"city of all cities" in ancient greece; used in modern times to refer to very large conurbationsHow is industrialization linked to urbanization?Industrialization generates increased urbanizationWhy is the Chicago school important to the study of urbanization?Ecological approach and urbanism as a way of lifeWhat is urbanism and what is urban ecology?A term by louis wirth to denote urban social life Urban ecology: approach to the study of urban life based on analogy with plants and organisms to physical envWhat does David Harvey mean by the "restructuring of space"?Large firms, gov controls, and private investors , influence activities of private home buyersWhat were the major conclusions of the study by Manuel Castells?Struggles of underprivileged groups to alter their living conditionsWhat specific trends may be identified regarding the population decline of ruralAmerica?Mechanization of agriculture, lack of economic opportunities, the attraction of urban lifestyles for younger people,What is "suburbanization", and what is the difference between the "inner suburbs" andthe "outer suburbs"?suburbanization - massive development inhabiting of towns surrounding a city Inner- older areas that include packets of poverty Outer- new housing stock, expanses of open landDescribe what is meant by gentrification and urban renewal?Gentrification: a process in which older, deteriorated housing and other buildings are renovated as more affluent groups Urban renewal- the process of renovating deteriorating neighborhoods by using public funds to renew old buildingsWhat are "global cities" and their traits?A city such as london, new york or tokyo that has become an organizing center of the new global economy Traits- developed into command posts Key locations for financial and specialized service firms Sites of production and innovation Markets where products of financial and service industries are bought, sold or otherwise disposed ofWhat are the trends in urbanization in the "Global South", and what are the economic,environmental, and social challenges associated with urbanization?Rates of population growth are higher, urban growth is fueled by high fertility rates Widespread internal migration from rural to urban Economic challenges: informal economy Environmental challenge pollution,k housing shortages, inadequate sanitation, unsafe water supplies, fatal heat waves, water shortages Social challenges- overcrowded and under resourced, lack resources to provide universal educationWhat are the historical trends as far as world population growth is concernedExponential growth thomas malthusDemographyThe scientific study of population characteristics.How are birth rates related to indicators of fertility, and how are death rates related toindicators of mortality?Birth rates- fertility: the average # children born produced by woman Death rates- mortality number of death rates in a populationlife expectancyThe average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to spanthe maximum length of life of a species; for humans, the longest that a human has livedWhat is the rate at which the world population is increasing on a yearly basis?1.1%doubling" time?Doubling time is the time it takes for a particular level of population to doubleIdentify FIVE different environment threats.Weapons of mass destruction, extreme weather events, natural disasters, unmitigated climate change and water crisisWhat is the difference between a "natural greenhouse effect" and a "human enhanced greenhouse effect?enhanced greenhouse effect is additional to the natural greenhouse effect and is due to human activity changing the make-up of the atmosphereWhat trend do you notice if you examine the global mean annual surface temperatureChange?I noticed that the temperatures have been rising over the years, due to human activityWhat is meant by the phrase, "new ecological paradigm"?New ecological paradigm refers to a dominant or prevailing mode of thinking within a scientific discipline, in this case an ecosystem