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Astronomy 111 #1 -for final
Terms in this set (49)
If we traveled away from Earth through the galaxy, the constellations
would appear to change slowly
The scientific method can be summarized using the three words
observation, theory, testing
Galileo's observations of the full phase of Venus were inconsistent with the Ptolemaic model of the solar system because
in the Ptolemaic model Venus is always closer to the Earth than the Sun is.
One sidereal day is ________ than one solar day
3.9 minutes shorter
According to Wien's law, the peak of the Planck curve for a 3000K object is
redder than for a 5000K object.
The angle subtended by an American dime at a distance of 3 miles is one arc second. From a distance of
9 miles, an American dime therefore subtends an angle of
1/3 arc second
The north celestial pole is located at celestial coordinates
0 hours RA, 90 degrees DEC
Which astronomer from the Copernican revolution was the first to place the Sun at the center of the solar system to eliminate the need for most of the epicycles?
Retrograde motion occurs when a planet appears to move
westward relative to the stars.
What are Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion?
1. The cube of a planet's semi major axis is proportional to the square of its orbital period.
2. Planets follow elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.
3. The line between the Sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.
Which of the items on the list are Newton's Laws of Motion?
1. To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
2. Things at rest remain at rest and things in motion travel at uniform velocity unless acted on by an external force.
3. The acceleration on an object is directly proportional to the force acting on the object and inversely proportional to its mass.
Which of the following points in the sky is located on the celestial equator?
0 hours RA, 0 degrees DEC AND 12 hours RA, 0 degrees DEC
When a lunar eclipse occurs, it can be seen from
anyplace on the night side of the Earth.
According to Kepler's third law, P^2 = a^3, where P is the orbital period measured in Earth years and a is the length of the semi-major axis measured in astronomical units. For the planet Saturn, a = 15, and therefore its orbital period is
58.1 Earth years.
How high is the North Celestial Pole (i.e., the star Polaris) above the horizon for an observer at a
latitude of 25 degrees North?
The ecliptic is
the path the Sun follows across the sky throughout the year. AND tilted 23 1/2 degrees from the celestial equator.
Suppose you point a telescope at a star and then clamp the telescope to the ground so that it can't move. If you wait ________, then the telescope will be pointing to a different star with ________.
one sidereal hour; the same declination but one more hour of right ascension
On September 21, the Sun is located
on or near the celestial equator.
An eclipse of the Moon can be observed only during a ________, while an eclipse of the Sun can be
observed only during a ________
full moon; new moon
In the Ptolemaic and Copernican models of the universe, respectively, the objects in the universe in order of increasing distance from the center are:
earth, moon, mercury, venus, sun, jupiter, saturn; sun, mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn
Consider the equation F = m a, where F is the applied force, m is the mass of the object, and a is the resulting acceleration. If we ________ while holding m constant, we ________.
double F; double a AND halve F; halve a
If the distance between two objects is increased by a factor of 3, then the gravitational force between
decrease by a factor of 9.
In Newton's theory of planetary motion, the shapes of the orbits are due to _______, but in Einstein's
theory the shapes of the orbits are due to _______.
the force of gravity; the curvature of space-time
In Ptolemy's model of the solar system, the ________ is at the center and ________ motion of the
planets is explained using ________.
Earth; retrograde; epicycles
A total eclipse of the Sun is observed from inside the ________. A partial solar eclipse is observed from
inside the ________.
Consider the accompanying triangle with a base of 15 meters. Using trigonometry, the result obtained
for the height h is
h = 15 meters x tan(60 degrees) = 26.0 meters
In the Copernican model of the universe, the ________ is at the center and the planetary motions are
based on ________.
In Kepler's model of the universe, the ________ is at the center and the planetary motions are based on
Although the Moon and the Sun have about the same angular size as viewed from the Earth, eclipses are
relatively rare because
the Moon's orbit is tilted with respect to the Earth's orbit.
Which astronomer from the Copernican revolution developed the physical laws explaining why the planets follow elliptical orbits?
Which astronomer from the Copernican revolution carefully analyzed and plotted Tycho Brahe's data
and deduced the 3 laws of planetary motion?
Kepler's second law implies that
planets travel with higher speed as they get closer to the Sun.
According to Kepler's second law, a line connecting the Sun with the planet Jupiter
sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
According to Stefan's Law, the energy radiated by an object per unit time varies in proportion to T^4,
where T is the temperature of the object. This means that if we ________ the temperature, the radiated
energy changes by a factor of ________.
Blue light has a
shorter wavelength and a higher energy than red light.
As we view stars around the North Celestial Pole from Fairfax, they appear to rotate ________ around
Polaris while stars in the eastern sky appear to ________.
It is colder in winter than in summer because
The tilt of the Earth's axis causes the Sun to be lower in the sky during winter.
Aristarchus hypothesized that the Earth revolves around the Sun. Which of the following is a reason that
the other Greek philosophers used to reject his idea?
The stellar parallax could not be observed.
The first people on Earth to witness a given total solar eclipse see it beginning at _______. The track of
the eclipse shadow moves across the Earth's surface from _______.
The Copernican principle is important for observational astronomy because according to it,
physical laws are the same throughout the universe.
An annular eclipse occurs when the Sun, Moon, and Earth line up, and
the Moon is at its maximum distance from the Earth.
Which type of instrument did Tycho Brahe use to make his measurements of planetary positions?
giant protractors and straight sighting rods
We showed in class that the equation relating the distance D to the parallax angle alpha is given by
D = (180
R) / (pi
where the parallax angle alpha is assumed to be in degrees and R = 6,378 km is the Earth's radius. If the
parallax angle is 1 arc-second (1"), then the distance D to the object in space is
1.3 x 10^9 km.
Which astronomer from the Copernican revolution made the first systematic telescopic observations of
The semimajor axis of an ellipse is
half the width of the ellipse measured across the longest dimension.
The stars return to the same positions in the sky every
24 sidereal hours.
If a light source is approaching you at high speed, then the Doppler effect causes
the energy of the light to be increased.
In the Copernican model of the solar system, retrograde motion of Mars occurs
when the line between the Earth and the Sun passes over the line between Mars and the Sun.
Consecutive full Moons occur every
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