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Psychologist who studied the effect of segregation on children

Kenneth B. Clark

mental process, such as a dream or memory

cognitive activity

school of psychology that looks at the basic elements of conscious experience


contemporary psychological approach that emphasizes study of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status

sociocultural perspective

founder of the school of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Philosopher who stressed the importance of introspection


founder of structuralism

Wilhelm Wundt

action that can be observed or measured


wrote the first modern psychology book

William James

school of psychology that describes experience as a whole rather than broken down into parts

Gestalt Psychology

factor in an experiment that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect

independent variable

measure of how closely one thing is related to another


sample in which subgroups of a population are represented proportionally

stratified sample

educated guess


research method in which participants are observed over a long period of time

longitudinal method

whole group that is the subject of the study

target population

group in an experiment that does not receive treatment

control group

study in which participants do not know whether they are receiving the treatment or not

single blind study

in-depth investigation of an individual or small group

case study

substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person's belief in it


part of the hindbrain that helps control balance and coordination


nerve cell


part of the cerebral cortex that governs thought and language

association area

part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits sensory images

somatic nervous system

system that consists of glands that secrete hormones

endocrine system

fatty substance that protects the axon


thin fibers that transmit messages to the neuron's cell body


chemical used to send messages across synapses


part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the body's vital functions


part of the forebrain that serves as a relay station for sensory stimulation


opening in the colored part of the eye


bony tube in the inner ear that contains fluid and neurons


illusion of movement produced by a rapid progression of images

stroboscopic motion

sensitive surface of the eye that acts like the film in a camera


nerve that sends information about odors to the brain

olfactory nerve

minimum mount of difference that can be detected between two stimuli

difference threshold

neuron that is sensitive to light


perceptual preference for seeing smooth, continuous patterns


weakest amount of a stimulus that can be sensed

absolute threshold

tendency to perceive a whole figure even when there are gaps in sensory input


breathing interruption that occurs during sleep

sleep apnea

stimulant used to help people stay awake and reduce appetite


biological clock

circadian rhythm

perception of an object or a sound that seems real but is not


stage of sleep in which we have the most vivid dreams

REM sleep

state of awareness in which a person's sense of self or of the world alters

altered state of consciousness

sleep problem in which people suddenly fall asleep no matter waht time it is


false idea that seems real


removal of poisonous substance from the body


system that feeds back information about something happening in the body


form of classical conditioning in which a food comes to be avoided

taste aversion

act of responding in the same way to a stimuli that seem similar


method of overcoming fears by pairing a pleasing stimulus with a feared one


method that involves relaxation and gradual exposure to a feared stimulus

systematic desensitization

form of learning based on the consequences of actions

operant conditioning

when a conditioned response stops occurring


stimulus that causes an automatic response

unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that encourages a behavior by meeting an organism's basic biological needs

primary reinforcer

act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar


revival of an extinguished response

spontaneous recovery

kind of memory that consist of skills that people have learned

implicit memory

sensory register that holds mental traces of sounds

echoic memory

memory loss from trauma that prevents a person from forming new memories

anterograde amnesia

method of repeating information over and over to keep from forgetting it

maintenance rehearsal

acronyms, phrase, or jingle that helps in remembering information

mnemonic device

tendency to recall the last items in a list

recency effect

method of remembering information by relating it to information already known

elaborative rehearsal

kind of memory that consists of specific events

episodic memory

memory loss of the events leading up to a traumatic event

retrograde amnesia

ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time

eidetic imagery

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