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70 terms

Vocabulary

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Psychologist who studied the effect of segregation on children
Kenneth B. Clark
mental process, such as a dream or memory
cognitive activity
school of psychology that looks at the basic elements of conscious experience
structuralism
contemporary psychological approach that emphasizes study of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status
sociocultural perspective
founder of the school of behaviorism
John B. Watson
Philosopher who stressed the importance of introspection
Socrates
founder of structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt
action that can be observed or measured
behavior
wrote the first modern psychology book
William James
school of psychology that describes experience as a whole rather than broken down into parts
Gestalt Psychology
factor in an experiment that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect
independent variable
measure of how closely one thing is related to another
correlation
sample in which subgroups of a population are represented proportionally
stratified sample
educated guess
hypothesis
research method in which participants are observed over a long period of time
longitudinal method
whole group that is the subject of the study
target population
group in an experiment that does not receive treatment
control group
study in which participants do not know whether they are receiving the treatment or not
single blind study
in-depth investigation of an individual or small group
case study
substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person's belief in it
placebo
part of the hindbrain that helps control balance and coordination
cerebellum
nerve cell
neuron
part of the cerebral cortex that governs thought and language
association area
part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits sensory images
somatic nervous system
system that consists of glands that secrete hormones
endocrine system
fatty substance that protects the axon
myelin
thin fibers that transmit messages to the neuron's cell body
dendrites
chemical used to send messages across synapses
neurotransmitters
part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the body's vital functions
medulla
part of the forebrain that serves as a relay station for sensory stimulation
thalamus
opening in the colored part of the eye
pupil
bony tube in the inner ear that contains fluid and neurons
cochlea
illusion of movement produced by a rapid progression of images
stroboscopic motion
sensitive surface of the eye that acts like the film in a camera
retina
nerve that sends information about odors to the brain
olfactory nerve
minimum mount of difference that can be detected between two stimuli
difference threshold
neuron that is sensitive to light
photoreceptor
perceptual preference for seeing smooth, continuous patterns
continuity
weakest amount of a stimulus that can be sensed
absolute threshold
tendency to perceive a whole figure even when there are gaps in sensory input
closure
breathing interruption that occurs during sleep
sleep apnea
stimulant used to help people stay awake and reduce appetite
amphetmine
biological clock
circadian rhythm
perception of an object or a sound that seems real but is not
hallucination
stage of sleep in which we have the most vivid dreams
REM sleep
state of awareness in which a person's sense of self or of the world alters
altered state of consciousness
sleep problem in which people suddenly fall asleep no matter waht time it is
narcolepsy
false idea that seems real
delusion
removal of poisonous substance from the body
detoxification
system that feeds back information about something happening in the body
biofeedback
form of classical conditioning in which a food comes to be avoided
taste aversion
act of responding in the same way to a stimuli that seem similar
generalization
method of overcoming fears by pairing a pleasing stimulus with a feared one
counterconditioning
method that involves relaxation and gradual exposure to a feared stimulus
systematic desensitization
form of learning based on the consequences of actions
operant conditioning
when a conditioned response stops occurring
extinction
stimulus that causes an automatic response
unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that encourages a behavior by meeting an organism's basic biological needs
primary reinforcer
act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar
discrimination
revival of an extinguished response
spontaneous recovery
kind of memory that consist of skills that people have learned
implicit memory
sensory register that holds mental traces of sounds
echoic memory
memory loss from trauma that prevents a person from forming new memories
anterograde amnesia
method of repeating information over and over to keep from forgetting it
maintenance rehearsal
acronyms, phrase, or jingle that helps in remembering information
mnemonic device
tendency to recall the last items in a list
recency effect
method of remembering information by relating it to information already known
elaborative rehearsal
kind of memory that consists of specific events
episodic memory
memory loss of the events leading up to a traumatic event
retrograde amnesia
ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time
eidetic imagery