DAT Test Biology

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Every cells are composed of
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Terms in this set (131)
each cells containscytoplasm, nucleic acid, and a cell membranePlants and autotrophs produce energy throughphotosynthesis or chemosynthesisAnimals and other heterotrophs obtain energy byconsuming autotrophs and heterotrophsCellular respiration converts ---- to ------nutrient molecules into energyPlants Vs Animals cellswhat they have in common: nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes, mitochondria, ER, Golgi, and vacuoles Plants: have 1 or 2 Large vacuoles, chloroplast, rectangular shape Animals: small vacuoles, circular shapePlasma Membrane basic function is cell ----containment. -double layer of phospholipid ( phospholipid is made of cholesterol and proteins) -interior of membrane is hydrophobic - helps keep stuff within the cells and helps with concentration of substance on either side of the membrane.Phospholipids is made of2 fatty acids(nonpolar), glycerol(polar), phosphate group, and an organic R group - they are amphipathic -can be micelles or a bilayerMicellessmall spherical structure made of a single layer of phospholipids. Tails go inwards forming a hydrophobic coreBilayerparallel layers. tails are pointed inwards to each other and heads are pointed outwards.steroids are derived from-cholesterol Cholesterols hydrophilic region: hydroxyl group (OH) -interacts with the polar heads of the phospholipid hydrophobic region: 4 fused hydrocarbon rings and hydrocarbon chain -interacts with the non-polar tails Function of cholesterol: make sure phospholipids can spread to far apart or pack to close to each other (maintain stability and viscosity )Waxesare lipids (usually in plans) -long fatty acid chain bonded to an alcohol with a long carbon chain. -hydrophobic and can be used as a water repellantProteins that penetrate into the hydrophobic interior regionIntegral proteinsglycoproteins is type of --- proteins with an attached sugar chain that aid in cell recognition.integralwhen integral proteins extend completly through the membranetransmembranetype of protein that is tunnel like conformation that allows materials to move passivelychannel proteintype of protein that changes its conformation to move materials by active or passive transportCarrier Proteinstype of protein that is loosely bound to either side of the membrane, acts as a enzyme or receptor protein.Peripheral proteinS.J Singer and G.I Nicolson in 1972 formed theFluid Mosaic ModelIn the fluid mosaic model: Phospholipids arrange themselves into a sandwich like formation with fatty acid pointed --. and polar heads facing ---.inward, outward - move fast, but rarely flip to opposite layers -carbohydrates are found only on exterior of membrane -cholesterol is found in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane acts as a fluid buffer so phospholipids can spread or come close togetherFlippaseis an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phospholipids from extracellular layer to the cytoplasmic layer -requires ATPFloppasetranslocates from cytoplasmic layer to extracellular layer -requires ATPScramblases translocatephospholipids in either direction -does NOT require ATPProteins can move laterally but not ----transversallyIntergral and peripheral proteins (CAN/CAN NOT) drift away slowlyBOTH CANPassive Transport-Delta G is negative free energy - spontaneous/ thermodynamically favarable - solutes go down there electrochemical gradient term-38 -increase entropy -no energy required - keeps going till it reaches equalibriumexample of passive transportsimple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis ALL DO NOT REQUIRE ATPDiffusion illustrates which law of thermodynamic?2nd, direction of movement of entropy is driven. -high concentration to low -increases entropyactive transport-delta G is positive - spontaneously unfavorbale - solutes go up there electrochemical gradient -decrease ENTROPYSimple Diffusion examples molecules?cross without the aid of a transport protein - small non-polar. oxygen, carbon dioxideOsmosiswater across the membrane semipermeable membrane -uses aquaporins to increase osmosisfacilitated diffusion-large/polar molecules. -uses carrier/ channel proteinHypertonicextracellular has high concentration compared to cytoplasm of cell. (more outside/swell )hypotonicextracellular has lower concentration compared to cytoplasm of cell (more inside/burst)isotonicsame concentration in and out of the cellActive transport is( low/high) to ( low to high) pump (against/ or with concentration gradient)-low to high -againstsymport antiporttwo molecules travel in the same directions two molecules travel in opposite directionstypes of active transportendocytosis and exocytosis require ATPsodium-potassium pump has what type of --- protein? pumps --- NA out of the cell and -- K in the cell? uses which enzyme does it use? Intracellular is (negative/positive) compared to the outside? what causes the conformation change?-carrier -3, 2 -ATPase - negative -phosphorylation - Phosphorylation causes the carrier protien to change conformation to open and 3 NA to go out of the cell. Now 2 K will enter the cell changer the protein back to the conformation and 2K go in the cell.membrane channels acts as ( carrier or channel)? does or doesnt require ATP are they weak or strong?allow small charged particles through the membrane - channel/ tunnel -Does not -weak but move fastwithout aquaporins osmosis would happen(fast/slow) aquaporins are always (open or closed)-slow -openion channelsusually gated, open and close to various stimulantsvoltage gated channelschanges by membrane potentialLigand gated ion channelopen when binded to a ligand, such as a hormone or neurotrasnmiterMechanically gated ion channelchanges in a physical stimulants, example; stretcing in the membrane, sensory tissuesG protein coupled receptor known as- signal transduction - when ligand binds signal cascade happens when a chemical signal is passed from molecule to molecule in the cytoplasm. Example; insulinmembrane potential (E or V)voltage across a membrane thats determined by the concentration of ionsinside of the cell is positive ( depolarized or hyperpolarized )depolarizedif the cell becomes more negative in the cell then the resting potential (-30 to -90) its (depolarized or hyperpolarized)?hyperpolarizedExocytosiscellular waste is transported to the membrane and releases its contnent into the extracellulr membraneendocytosisingestion of large fluid, particles molecules -fold inwards to enguld the materialpinocytosisingestion of fluid ingestion of any enzyme or nutriant (non-specific)phagocytosisengulfing of large particles, sometimes the whole cell -example immune cells engulf harmful bacteriareceptor-mediated endocytosisform of endocytosis that targets certain molecules like (LDL) that are low in concentration outside of the cellThree types of cell junctions made of what special protein?gap, tight, desmosomes cell adhesion molecules (CAM)gap junctions connect by? Found in which cells?allowing adjecent cells to communicate connects by connexons found in nearly all cellstight junctions connected by? mostly found in which cells?described as a leak proof zipper, seals one cell to the other. -claudins -epithelial tissue/ digestive tractDesmosomes composed of what type of proteins? found in which cells?button like so tissues can stretch. -cadherins -cytoskeletonProkaryote reproduce bybinary fissionEukaryote reproduce bymitosis (cell division) causes 2 daughter cellswhich membrane are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotesribosomes and cytoskeletonNuclues DNA is enclosed in what? what other factors happen in the nucleus?stores most of the DNA. - nuclear envelope(double membrane with pores) - replication and trasnscriptionlargest structure inside the nucleus? does the nucleolus have a membrane? nucleolus is made of which 3 components?nucleolus responsible for producing ribsomal subunits -no - 2 thread like fibrillar, 1 granularFibrillar center dense fibrillar centerribosomal RNA is located and transcribed -process the immature rna and assembled in the granularnuceulus disapears when---- and reapers when ----mitosis(prophase )//// (telephase)outer membrane of the nuclear envelope continues with the --ERmitochondria is the Inner membrane fold intoPowerhouse of the cell, produces most of the ATP. -cristae ( this is where electron trasnport chain is located )Chemiosmosissynthesis of ATPmitochondria issemi-autonomous, because it has its own genome and ribosomes. similar to bacteriaendosymbiotic theorythey were evolved from prokaryotes. it was engulfed by a host cell (hence double membrane) and provided that cell with ATPLysosomes active at what ph? autophagy? what happens if so many lysosomes are damaged? can cause what disease?breakdown of various substances -5 acidic - cleans nonfunctioning components and recycle them -apoptosis or necrosis -Tay SachsRough ERcontinuus with the nuclear envelope and has ribosomes studded cristernae (flattened sacs)Smooth ER membrane is continuoues with-- and --?tubular in shape, no ribosomes -rough ER and nucleusThe ER constitutes half of all the ---- in the cell rough er is connected to ---?-plasma membrane - outer nucleur membranesmooth ER synthesize phospholipids by joining two --- to a molecule of --? Smooth ER has which important membrane lipid?-fatty acid to glycerol -cholesterolGolgi apparatus has many curves, flattened sacks called enter through (cis/ trans) and exit through (cis/trans)\ can remove or add sugar to the vesicle while going through the golgi examples; sulfate and phosphate groups (T/F)-cristernia - cis (near ER)//// trans (golgi) -truePeroxisomes are similar to which organelle? They are found in which type of cells? function at what ph? what does it produces as a byproduct which is toxic to cells? which enzyme break down this byproduct into water and oxygen?-lysosomes -in all type of eukaryotic cells -higher ph (basic) -hydrogen peroxide -catalaseCytoskleleton function? 3 major protein fibers? cytoskeleton plays a major role in -- and it used to help seperate sister ---.-membraneless found in all types of cells, used for cell shape but also plays a role for movement of things in the cell -microfilaments, intermediated fibers, microtubules -cell division, chromatidsMicrofilaments composed of what protein molecule? this molecules then binds to what? These two proteins then make a? what are they used for? elongate which end? shorten which end?-thinnest -actin, then actin binds to myosin, myofibrils -muscle contraction, movement of the cell, maintain cell shape -plus end(actin polymerization), minus end(actin depolymerization)microtublues composed of what globular protein? these dimers then stack up on each other to form linear rows called? 13 of these protofilaments arrange themself into a ring to form a? what protein walks towards the plus end? What protein walks towards the minus end?-thickest -tubulin -protofilaments -hollow tube -Kinesin -DyneinsIntermediate filaments one thing they are NOT responsible for, only thing they do? They do not polymerize and depolymerize (T/F)? They have specific proteins to certain types of --?thinner then microfilaments but thicker then mircotubules - cell movement, supporting the cell -true -cellsFlagella and Cilia are made of what type of protein? Flagella or cilia which is stronger? which one is more in number? Both can wave back and forth through the action of the motor protein? Flagella are used only for? Cilia is used for?-microtubule -Flagella, Cilia -Dyneins -locomotion -locomotion, and sweep materials along the surfaceCilia (back and forth)are in what real life examples; Flagella(whip-like) are in what real life examples;-digestive tract removes mucous, female reproductive system with egg -male sperm cellCentrioles Animals cells, have two perpendicular centrioles that form an organelle called? Centrosomes are found where---, but migrate --- during cell division?-cylinder-shaped organelles made of nine triplets of microtubules arranged in a circle -centrosome -found near the nucleus, opposite polesPhotosynthesis has three stages?-light energy to chemical energy -1. light capturing event, 2 light dependent reaction 3. light independent reactionstage 1 (light capturing reaction)Thylakoids in the chloroplast which has chlorophyll absorb light and produce excited electrons.Stage 2 (light dependent reaction) Forms what moleculestakes the excited electrons moves through electron transport, spilts water into hydrogen and oxygen ions. -oxygen is released, NADPH, ATPStage 3 (Light independent reaction) uses-- what to make --uses NADPH, ATP, carbon dioxide to make sugarsThree types of photosynthesis C3 makes 2 ---? Forms a reaction between -- and --? C4 makes ---? Forms a reaction between -- and --? 95% of plants use which type of photosynthesis? C4 is used by plants when sunlight in intense region because it helps?C3, C4, CAM cruassulacean acid metabolism -2 3C molecules, carbon dioxide and 5C molecule -4C molecule, carbon dioxide and 3C molecule -C3 -conserve watercruassulacean acid metabolism is used in what types of enviroment? At night pores of the plant are --- to recieve ----which combines with --to form ---? Malate is stored where? In the morning, stomata of the plant --, malate is transported to the --where malate is broken down to --- and ----dry -open, carbon dioxide, 3C, malate -vacuoles -open, chloroplast, pyruvate, carbon dioxidechloroplast is a big organelle with Disc are called --- arranged in stacks called--? Thylakoids have --? what seperates the thylakoid stacks? Sugars are formed where?-double membrane -thylakoids, grana -chlorophyll molecules -stromal lamellae -stromaPlastids are organelles found in Many types of plastids 2 examples of them are Amyloplast store ---? can convert back to sugar. Amyloplast can convert to chloroplast? (T/F)-plants and algae -amyloplast and chloroplast -starch -truechemosynthesis does not require? How do they get their enegery? Methenobacteria found in human intestine combine carbon dioxide and hydogen gas to release ---as a waste product?-light -energy thats stored in chemical bonds -methaneATP (adenosine triphosphate) DNA/RNA nucluotide? Adenine is bonded to a sugar group and 3 --. Closest C to 5' is named ---followed by -- and end with --? P are linked together by which bond?-RNA -phosphates -alpha, beta, gamma -Phosphoanhydride bondHydrolysis of ATP without a coupled reaction or group transfer is unlikely because it would just relases?-heatReactions that involves the transfer of electrons is called? Oxidation Reduction Redox reaction are used in what real life examples? Seperating them into there half life helps determain how many -- are being transfered?-oxidation reduction reaction -loss of electrons -gain electrons -photosynethsis(endergonic) and cellular respiration (exergonic) -electronsCommon Electron CarriersNAD. NADPH.FAD. Ubiquinone. Cytochrome cFlavoproteins FAD/FMN are dervived fromcontains a prosthetic group of FAD/FMN -riboflavinAll carbohydrates have a ratio of Ratio of a simple sugar is emperical formula for carbohydrates is:-C:H:O -1:2:1 - Cn(H2O)mMonosaccharides Triose Tetrose Pentose Hexosesimple sugars -3C -4C -5C -6Cdisacharidases what are the three types of disaccharides-a double sugars that has two monosaccharides -sucrose, lactose, maltoseOligosaccharides3-10 monosaccharidesPolysaccharides some examples:a long chain of monosaccharides; may be branched or unbranched -chitin, glycogen, starchAldose Ketose How to determin if its a D or L? Pyranose= Furanose = A monosaccharides with more then 4C will arrange itself into a --- conformation?-has a aldehyde group /hemiacetal -has a ketone group /hemiketal - D will have OH right, L will have OH left -6 membered ring -5 membered ring -cyclicEpimerstype of diastereomers that only different at one chiral carbon. (Only one carbon is flipped )Anomers are specific types of? the difference in configuration occurs at -- carbon: the ---group that rotates to become the chiral center and form a cyclic structure what two form are there? alpha OH and Big carbon both up/down or opposite side? beta OH and Big carbon both up/down or opposite side?-epimers -anomeric, carbonyl -alpha and beta -both are opposite -both are up/downglycosidic bond links what ---units together is a covalent bond that links the ---and another hydroxyl group of another group. Once the anomeric carbon partcipates in glycosidic bonds it can not revert back to --- and --? What enzyme cleaves water? what enzyme cleaves nitrogen base?-sugar -anomeric hydroxyl -alpha and beta -hydrolase -glycosylasemonosacharides are cannot be broken down any all monosaccharides are considered --sugars Benedict solution oxides the aldehyde to produce and --precipiTATE Tollens solution contains -- molecule which reduce the aldehyde to produce a -- color?simple sugars -smaller -reducing sugars -orange, Cu2O -Ag, silverDissacharides formula ratio? some dissacharides are reducing sugars because only one -- carbon parcipates in the glycosidic bond? if both carbon are paricipating in the glycosidic bond is called?-C12:H22:O11 -anomeric -non reducing sugarPolysacharides are common examples: Homopolysaccharides are what? Heteropolysaccharides are what? which one is the most common? starch uses which two polymers?10+ monosaccharides -chitin, cellulose, starch, glycogen -only contain one type of monosaccharide -have more then one type of monosaccharides -Homopolysaccharides -amylose, amylopectinGlycolysis if oxygen is present if no oxygen is present overall net energy-metabolizes glucose to pyruvate and ATP -citric acid cycle and oxidative phosporylation -fermentation (lactic or ethanol) -2ATP, 2NADH, 2 pyruvate (per one glucose)Feeder Pathways describes glucose is not the only carbohydrate that can enter glycolysis but other molecules such as? galactose coverts to -- then --- to enter glycolysis?that glucose or another molecule can enter glycolysis -galactose and fructose -glucose 1 phosphate, glucose 6 phosphatewhat is Fermenatation fermentation happen where? and final product? What happens to NAD anaerobic repiration final product?-substances breakdown into simpler substances -cytosol, 2 ATP, 2 NAD -can be recycled back into glycolysis -metabolizes sugar without oxygen -sulfate or nitratelactic acid fermentation happen in what type of cells? can be used to make what kind of real products? Alcohlic fermentation happen in what type of cells? can be used to make what kind of real products? two process: formation of acetaldehyde by pyruvate decarboxylase reduced acetaldehyde by alcholic dehydrogenases to form-animals, SOME bacteria -yogurt and cheese -yeast and SOME bacteria -bread making and alcoholic beverages -irreversible -ethanol, reversiblebiosynthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrates substrates gluconeogenesis is the reverse of ? pyruvate ---> this process happens when glucose level are too? all amino acids can be converted to glucose expect two which ones? where does gluconeogenesis mostly occur in humans? gluconeogenesis bypass which three steps in glycolysis glycolysis and gluconeogenisis are --- regulated?-gluconeogenesis -glycolysis -glucose -low -lysine and leucine -liver, but also can happen in the kidneys and small intestine -hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase -reciprocallyPentose Phosphate Pathway degardes -- to make --? ribose 5 phosphate snythesis what? has two phases what are the called? In the oxidative phase (irreversible or reversible) and produces what? from what? In the non-oxidative phase ((irreversible or reversible) and produces what? what atp made in either phase?-glucose, NADPH and ribose 5 phosphate -nucleotides -oxidative and non-oxidative phase -irreversible//////Co2/NADPH, ribose 5 phosphate///glucose 6 phosphate - reversible/// ribose 5 phosphate, fructose 6 phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -no ATP was made in either processmetabolic pathway --- play a big role by increasing the rate of the reaction? -- and --- molecules control the activity of the enzyme to turn the reaction on or off-A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds. -enzyme -inhibitors and activatorswhats the allosteric effector in glyclyosis? if to much ATP? If to much AMP is in the cell it inhibits?-phosphofructokinase, it will be turned off -gluconeogenesisdynamic steady state static equilibriumsystem remain constant is a stable condition, but no input of energy is requiredglycogenolysis uses what enzymes glycogenesis uses what enzymes-breakdown of glycogen -glycogen phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase -synthesis of glycogen -glycogen synthase, phosphoglucomutase, USD glucose phosphoylaseglucagon and epinephrine activate which enzyme? Inhibited?-glycogen phosphorylase(glycogenlysis), insulinHow is acetyl CoA formed?starts with a pyruvate(3C) one carbonyl group is removed in the form of CO2 making a (2C) molecules. The 2C molecules combines with NAD making NADH and also combines with CoA which makes acetyl CoA.