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32 terms

Language Vocabulary

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language
a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by members of a society
standard language
the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
dialect
local or regional characteristics of a language
isogloss
a line that separates dialects
mutuall intelligibility
the ability of two people to understand each other while speaking
dialect chains
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
languages family
languages which share a fairly distant origin
subfamilies
divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
sound shift
slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
backward reconstruction
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language
Proto-Indo-European
linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European Language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin Greek and Sanskrit languages
extinct language
a language no longer used
deep reconstruction
process by which an extinct language is recreated
nostratic
believed to be the root of Proto-Indo-European as well as Kartvelian
language divergence
new languages are formed
language convergence
languages form together into one
Renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, gave rise to three language families: Indo-European, Arabic Languages, and mid-eastern languages
conquest theory
Proto-Indo-European west of the horseback of the fertile cresent
dispersal theory
Proto-Indo-Europeans were first crried eastward into southwest asia
Romance Languages
languages based on roman
Germanic languages
languages based on german
Slavic languages
languages based on slovakian
lingua franca
a mixture of Italian French Greek Spanish and Arabic
pidgin language
when parts of two or more languages come together to form a simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole language
a mixture of languages
monolingual states
a state that uses one language
multilingual states
a state that uses many languages
official language
the promoted language of a region
global language
language used commonly around the world
place
uniqueness of a location
toponym
the ability to know something about a place by its name