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the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by members of a society
the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language
linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European Language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin Greek and Sanskrit languages
three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, gave rise to three language families: Indo-European, Arabic Languages, and mid-eastern languages
when parts of two or more languages come together to form a simplified structure and vocabulary
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